Tyrosine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group.

Cassified as a hydrophobic amino acid, it is more hydrophilic than phenylalanine.

It is encoded by the codons UAC and UAU in messenger RNA.

It is a proteinogenic amino acid.

It functions as a receiver of phosphate groups that are transf2242ed by protein kinases.

Phosphorylation of the hydroxyl group can change the activity of the target protein, or may form part of a signaling cascade via SH2 domain binding.

Recommended dietary allowance, (RDA) for phenylalanine and tyrosine is 33 mg per kilogram of body weight, or 15 mg per pound.

Tyrosine, can also be synthesized in the body from phenylalanine, is found in many high-protein food products such as chicken, turkey, fish, milk, egg white,yogurt, cottage cheese, cheese, peanuts, almonds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, soy products, lima beans, avocados, and bananas.

The conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine is catalyzed by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, a monooxygenase.

This enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes the reaction causing the addition of a hydroxyl group to the end of the 6-carbon aromatic ring of phenylalanine, and becomes tyrosine.

Tyrosine phosphorylation a key step in signal transduction and regulation of enzymatic activity.

In dopaminergic cells in the brain, tyrosine is converted to L-DOPA by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase.

Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Dopamine can then be converted into other catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine.

The thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are derived from tyrosine.

Tyrosine is also the precursor to the pigment melanin.

It is needed to synthesize the benzoquinone structure which forms part of coenzyme Q10.

Tyrosine is a precursor to neurotransmitters.

It increases plasma neurotransmitter levels dopamine and norepinephrine during conditions of stress, cold, fatigue, prolonged work and sleep deprivation, associated with reductions in stress hormone levels, and improvements in cognitive and physical performance.

Does not seem to have any significant effect on cognitive or physical performance in normal circumstances.

It helps to sustain memory better during multitasking.

L-tyrosine and its derivatives L-DOPA, and melanin, are used in pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, and food additives.

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