Trans fatty acids

Unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration.

Formed during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils resulting in semisolid fats utilized in margarines and other commercial cooking products.

Account for 2-3% of total calories consumed in the U.S.

Offers no health benefits.

Trans fatty acids are not essential and provide no known benefit to human health.

Consumption of industrial trans fats is associated with a 34% increase in death for any reason, 20% increase risk of coronary heart disease mortality, and a 21% increase in the risk of cardiovascular death.

Have long shelf life, stability when used for deep frying and semisolidity provides palatability in food.

Major sources include deep fried foods, baker items, snack foods, margarines and crackers.

Mainly produced industrially from plant oils for use in margarine, snack foods, and packaged baked goods.

Naturally occurring in small amounts in meat, dairy products from cows and sheep.

Consumption of TFA’s adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors.

Consumption of TFA’s associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease events.

TFA intake increases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and decreases HDL levels.

Free trans fatty acids delirious effects on low-density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

Recommended intake to less than 1% to reduce risk of heart disease and stroke.

Banning the use of partially hydrogenated oils could prevent as many as 20,000 coronary events and 7000 deaths from coronary diseases each year in the US.

TFAs associated with pro-inflammatory effects, decreases insulin sensitivity in patients with insulin resistance and impairs endothelial function.

Trans fats appear to increase the risk of coronary artery disease more than any other macronutrient, conferring a substantially increased risk even at low levels of consumption of 1 to 3% of total energy intake.

Trans fat consumption significantly increases  belly fat.

Some TFAs naturally present in dairy and meat products of ruminant animals.

Small amounts are produced industrially and are formed during refinements of oils and prolonged deep frying of foods.

Industrially produced TFA’s commonly present in vegetable shortenings, margarines, baked goods, snackfoods and other foods made with or fried in partially hydrogenated oils.

Current recommendations is to keep total TFA consumption as low as possible, and specifically limiting foods that contain industrially produced TFA’s such as partially hydrogenated oils.

Average consumption of industrially produced TFA’s is about 1.3 g per person per day and dropping due to food labeling requirements and restaurant use restrictions.

TFA consumption accounts for 0.6% of a person’s energy use.

Presently, the majority of foods contain less than 0.5 g of total TFA’s per serving.

Plasma levels of TFA have fallen about 50% between 2000-2009.

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