Also known as stammering.

Of unknown cause.

Characterized by repetitions, prolongations, and int2242uptions in the flow of speech.

Genetics contribute to etiology.

Strongest link is to the long arm of chromosome 12.

Mutations in 3 genes may cause 10% of stuttering.

Gene mutations involve breakdown and recycling of brain cell components.

High rate of spontaneous recovery, especially in females (Yairi E).

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