Salmonella infections

2-4 million infections annually in the U.S.

Approximately 14,800 hospitalizations and 400 deaths annually.

20% of such infections due the S. typhimurium serotype.

Domestic and wild animals are primary hosts for excreting Salmonella in their feces.

The most common sources of infection are contaminated poultry, meat and eggs.

Up to 50% of chickens in the U.S. are culture positive for Salmonella.

Baby poultry, particular chicks and ducklings source of outbreaks of infection.

In 1996-97 there were approximately 74,000 such infections from reptile and amphibian exposure (Mermin J).

The addition of antibiotics to animal feed facilitates changes in intestinal flora and the development of Salmonella enterocolitis.

Leading cause of acute bacterial enterocolitis with 1.4 million cases per year.

Salmonella associated diarrheal illness leads to approximately 1.4 million illnesses and 600 deaths annually in the US ( Jain as et al).

Most Salmonella infections are sporadic rather than related to outbreaks.

S. typhi and S. paratyphi are a major cause of enteric fever with morbidity in tropical countries.

Many infections associated with handling chicks, ducklings, reptiles, amphibians and hedgehogs.

S. typhi and S. paratyphi have a high most specificity for humans indicating contact with an acutely ill person, a chronic carrier, or food or water contamination.

Patients at risk are patients on immunosuppressive drugs, have a malignancy or have a hemolytic disorder.

Chronic carrier state of Salmonella in fecal excretion for more than 1 year seen in 0.2-0.6% of nontyphoidal Salmonellosis patients.

1-4% of Salmonella typhi infected patients excrete bacteria in bile.

Chronic carrier state may persist throughout lifetime without antibiotic treatment or cholecystectomy.

5-10% of patients with enterocolitis develop bacteremia.

Have a predilection for diseased abdominal aortic walls, aneurysms or atherosclerotic plaques.

Neutrophil dysfunction as in patients with sickle cell disease and in patients with thalassemia, possibly a consequence of increased intracellular iron overload predisposes to salmonella infections.

Malfunctioning spleen with iron excess a predispose patients to systemic infections with vascular tropic organisms like salmonella.

S. enterica serotype Typhimurium infections usually self-limited gastrointestinal disease, but resistant strains associated with 40% hospitalization rates.

S. enterica serotype Typhimurium infections with multidrug-resistance associated with sepsis, treatment failures and death.

Saintpaul Salmonella is a rare Salmonella serotype rating 14 of 15 of the most common serotypes representing 5530 at a 441,863 cases of salmonella


Saintpaul Salmonella infections linked to food outbreaks with diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever and headaches.

Saintpaul Salmonella infections responsible for 17.7% hospitalizations and 4.1% of invasive infections with no associated deaths from 1996-2006 (Jones TF et al.

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