Resistance exercise


Strength training.

Resistance training is any exercise that causes the muscles to contract against an external resistance with the expectation of increases in strength, tone, mass, and/or endurance.

Resistance training is associated with lower mortality rates especially when compared with aerobic exercise.


When considering time commitments against health benefits, aerobic training is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass and body mass as a primary consideration, resistance training is good as a secondary factor when aging and lean mass are a concerned.

Resistance training is an optimal form of exercise for patients with type two diabetes, building muscle strength by lifting weights, training in calisthenics, yoga, or using weight machines. 

This form of exercise was linked to a 10% to 15% increase in strength, blood pressure, BMD health, insulin sensitivity, and muscle mass.

Muscle strengthening activities, including resistance training and weight lifting, cause the body‘s muscles to work against an applied force or weight. 

Muscle strengthening activities often involve lifting heavy objects, such as weights, multiple times to strengthen various muscle groups.

Muscle strengthening activity can involve using elastic bands or body weight for resistance.

Muscle strenghthening activity has 3 components:intensity, frequency, and sets and repetitions.

Intensity relates to how much weight or force is used relative to how much one is able to lift.

Frequency is how often one does a muscle strengthening activity.

Sets and repetitions describes how many times a person does the muscle strengthening activity.

The effects of muscle strengthening activity are limited to the muscles doing the work.

Beneficial because they improve lean body mass, increase the basal metabolic rate and energy expenditure.

Resistance training stimulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) for a period of up to 48 hours following exercise.


Ingestion of a protein-rich meal at any point during this period will augment the exercise-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis.

Independent of its effect on weight loss, resistance exercise improves body composition by decreasing abdominal fat and preserving lean body mass.

Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.

Resistance training provides significant functional benefits and improvement in overall health and well-being, including increased bone density, muscle, tendon, and ligament strength and toughness, improved joint function, reduced potential for injury, increased metabolism, increased fitness and improved cardiac function.


Resistance training causes injuries at a much higher rate than aerobic training.


Resistance training if time is available is also helpful in post-exercise metabolism, but it is an adjunctive factor because the body needs to heal sufficiently between resistance training episodes, whereas with aerobic training, the body can accept this every day. 


Uses progressively increasing force output of the muscle through incremental weight increases and uses a variety of exercises and types of equipment to target specific muscle groups.

Strength training is primarily an anaerobic activity.

Resistance strength training is typically associated with the production of lactate, which is a limiting factor of exercise performance.

Regular endurance exercise leads to adaptations in skeletal muscle which can prevent lactate levels from rising during strength training.

Strength training sports are bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, shot put, discus throw, and javelin throw.

Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen,.

Weight training benefits include greater muscular strength, improved muscle tone, increased endurance and enhanced bone density.

The response to weight training stimuli to a significant extent, training can not exceed a muscle’s intrinsic genetically determined qualities.

Resistance exercising elevates metabolism for up to 14 hours following 45-minutes of vigorous exercise.

Strength training improves posture, provides better support for joints, and reduce the risk of injury from everyday activities.

Weight training in the elderly can prevent some of the loss of muscle tissue that normally accompanies aging.

The elderly may become less frail with weight training.

Weight-bearing exercise helps to prevent osteoporosis.

Weight-bearing exercise can improve bone strength in patients with osteoporosis.

Weight training is beneficial in older people who begin engaging in it even in their 80s and 90s.

Aerobic training is a better cardiovascular stimulus than strength training.

Resistance training may reduce metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk.

Overweight individuals with high strength fitness have metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles similar to normal-weight, fit individuals.

For many people in rehabilitation or with an acquired disability, such as following stroke or orthopaedic surgery,

Strength training for weak muscles as a result of stroke or orthopedic surgery optimizes recovery.

Stronger muscles as a result of strength exercising improves performance in a variety of sports.

Intense exercise can increase levels of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which can help to improve mood and counter feelings of depression, but are not found to be increased by resistance training.

Resistance training results in significant improvement in strength, and significantly reduces depressive symptoms among adults so that a physical activity routine including both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities is optimal for the prevention of depression.

Many benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle ; contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases.

Strength training involves repetitions, sets, tempo, exercises and force to cause changes in strength, endurance or size by the overloading of a group of muscles.

8 to 12 repetitions of a resistance training exercise for each major muscle group, with a two to three minute rest is recommended between exercise sets to allow for proper recovery.

Two to four sets are recommended for each muscle group

If the desired muscle group is not challenged sufficiently, and the threshold of overload is never reached muscles do not gain in strength.

Strength training increases muscle, tendon and ligament strength, bone density, flexibility, tone, metabolic rate and postural support.

Strength training has a variety of subterms:

Exercise – movements which involve rotating joints in specific patterns to challenge muscles in different ways.

Form – each exercise has a specific form of movement designed to maximize safety and muscle strength gains.

Repetition-a single cycle of lifting and lowering a weight in a controlled manner, moving through the form of the exercise.

Set-consists of several repetitions performed one after another with no break between them.

Rep Maximum, the number of repetitions one can perform at a certain weight.

Tempo refers to the speed with which an exercise is performed.

Each exercise is continued to the point of momentary muscular failure, at the time the first repetition that fails due to inadequate muscular strength.

Weight training is an effective form of strength training because exercises can be chosen, and weights precisely adjusted, to safely exhaust each individual muscle group after the specific numbers of sets and repetitions.

Variables of strength training are intensity, volume, and frequency.

Intensity refers to the amount of work required to achieve the activity.

Intensity is proportional to the mass of the weights being lifted.

Volume refers to the number of muscles worked, during a single session.

Frequency refers to how many training sessions weekly.

Strength training exercise is primarily anaerobic, with anaerobic glycolysis the major source of power, although aerobic metabolism makes a small contribution.

Muscles will fire fibers of both the aerobic or anaerobic types on any given exercise, in varying ratio depending on the load on the intensity.

This is known as the energy system continuum.

At higher loads, the muscle will recruit all muscle fibers from both anaerobic and aerobic in order to generate the most force.

At maximum load, the anaerobic processes contract so forcefully that the aerobic fibers are completely shut out, and all work is done by the anaerobic processes.

Anaerobic muscle fiber uses its fuel faster than the blood and intracellular restorative cycles can resupply it, limiting the number of repetitions.

In the aerobic exercising, the blood and intracellular processes can maintain a supply of fuel and oxygen, and continual repetition of the motion will not cause the muscle to fail.

Bodybuilding is a sport that increases the endurance of muscles, as well as strength.

An increase in dietary protein is believed to be required for building skeletal muscle

Weight trainers to consume a high-protein diet which delivers 1.4 to 1.8 g of protein per kg of body weight per day or about 0.6 to 0.8 g per pound.

Carbohydrates at about 5–7 g per kg, is also a required source of energy to restore glycogen levels in muscles.

Glucose is often consumed as it rapidly replenishes any glycogen lost during the exercise period.

To maximize muscle protein anabolism, recovery drink should contain glucose, protein containing mainly dipeptides and tripeptides, and leucine.

A blend of whey, soy and casein gives a prolonged supply of amino acids to  muscles.

Muscles take around 24 to 48 hours for the muscles to recover following resistance exercise. 



Any muscle building activities influence muscle growth rate later on in life.

Females, are generally unable to develop large muscles regardless of the training due to the androgenic hormonal differences between the sexes.

If two people weigh the same, and are the same height, but have different lean body mass percentages, the one with more muscle will appear thinner

Muscle tone or firmness is derived from the increase in actin and myosin cross filaments in the sarcomere.

The increase in actin and myosin in the sarcomere allows the same amount of neurological input to create a greater firmness in the tone of the resting and passive partial contraction in the muscle.

There are  2 skeletal muscle fiber types – slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers. 



There is a genetic predisposition to have more fast-twitch type muscle fibers, or  more slow-twitch type muscle fibers.


The fast-twitch muscle fibers are physically larger, and contract a lot faster and with more force in comparison to the slow-twitch muscle fibers. 

The fast-twitch muscle fibers also have greater growth potential in comparison to slow-twitch muscle fibers.

 Muscles cannot be converted from one type to another.



Muscle cells are multinuclear cells, which means they  contain many nuclei.



New nuclei are formed whenever muscles are subjected to overload from any muscle building activity. 



These new nuclei may never be lost, which means that permanent physiological changes have taken place in the muscle fibers: muscles grow faster in individuals resuming muscle building activity in comparison to those who have never performed any muscle building activity in the past. 


This referred to as muscle memory.


Exercises repetitions cause hypertrophy of the sarcoplasm in slow-twitch and high-twitch muscle fibers, contributing to overall increased muscle bulk.

Low volume strength training of 5 repetitions or fewer will increase strength by increasing actin and myosin cross filaments increasing muscle firmness or tone.

The low volume of this training inhibits the hypertrophy effect.

Lowered-calorie diets may decrease the thickness of subcutaneous fat tissue, thus making muscle striations more visible.

Hypertrophy of muscle mass, has the potential to burn more calories in a given period compared to aerobics.

Hypertrophy of muscle mass helps to maintain a higher metabolic rate as they require calories to maintain themselves at rest.

Progressive resistance training improves physical functioning in older people, including the performance of simple and complex daily activities.

Men build muscle more efficiently than women because they have larger reserves of testosterone with a greater capability of producing growth hormone. 



Women have shorter muscle fibers, accounting for a reduction in strength, and differences in strength could also be a result of lean tissue distribution.



Women generally build muscle about 2-3 times slower in comparison to men.


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