Refractory anemia

Characterized by a hemoglobin level of below 11 gm/dL.

Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia typically accompany anemia.

Typically less than 1% of blasts in the peripheral blood and fewer than 5% myeloblasts and <15% of ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow.

Bone marrow usually hypercellular with dyserythropoiesis, dysgranulopoiesis and megakaryocytopoiesis.

About 15% of patients have hypocellularity and marrow fibrosis in 10-15% of patients.

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