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R classification

Adopted in 1987 by the UICC.

Pertains to absence or presence of residual tumor after surgical treatment.

Residual tumor may be localized in the area of the primary tumor and/or as distant metastases.

R0 corresponds to resection for cure or complete remission.

R1 refers to microscopic residual tumor, and R2 to macroscopic residual tumor.

R classification takes into account clinical and pathological findings and requires the pathological examination of resection margins.

The R classification is a strong predictor of prognosis.

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