Radiation-induced cancers

Irradiation of the cranium can increase the incidence of meningiomas by a factor of 10 and the incidence of glial tumors by a factor of 3 to 7, with a latency period of 10 years to more than 20 years after exposure.

Have a latency period of 10 or more years between exposure to radiation and the appearance of a secondary cancer.

Have an increased cumulative frequency over time and a higher risk of developing a second cancer the younger the age at radiation exposure.

Women exposed to moderate or high dose chest radiation, greater than or equal to 20 Gy, during childhood cancer therapy have an increased risk of breast cancer.

Breast cancer a late effect of exposure to doses of ionizing radiation as low as 0.1-0.5 Sievert .

Decreased risk for breast cancer with increasing age at exposure.

Females who received thoracic RT in the second or third decade of life, have a substantially increased risk of developing breast cancer by age 40 years.

Increasing radiation dose exposure and increasing radiation induced breast cancer risk.

Radiation exposure at any age associated with increased risk of breast cancer.

The overall risk of breast cancer associated with prior thoracic RT  at a young age is more than 56 fold for female patients greater than the risk for breast cancer in the general population.

The magnitude of increased risk of breast cancer in women after being radiated during childhood is as great as that associated with BRCA mutations with a cumulative breast cancer incidence approaching 20% by age 45 years.

From breast radiation about 1% excess of second, non-breast cancers.

Radiation should be avoided in patients who have breast cancer with germline TP53 mutations because these mutations increase the chance of radiation-induced cancers, including angiosarcoma.

Sarcomas of the breast increase with radiation and with chronic lymphedema.

Latency in sarcomas of the breast range from 3-20.3 years.

Shorter latent periods for the development of sarcomas with the use of megavoltage rather than orthovoltage radiation.

Radiation-associated sarcoma of the breast is a rare and aggressive complication of breast radiation therapy, appearing in approximately 0.05%–0.3% of irradiated patients.

Most are angiosarcomas, typically arising 5–7 years after radiation therapy.

Radiation induced sarcoma incidence related to dose.

Radiation induced sarcomas have a latency of many years and are associated with a poor prognosis.

Exposure to medical radiation from CT scans is associated with elevated risk of thyroid cancer and leukemia.

The elevated risk in thyroid cancer and leukemia in association with medical CT was stronger in females than males.

No significant association between the risk of cancer and CT scans was observed in overall patients with NHL, however, increased risks were found in patients ≤45 years of age.

Dose-response relationship is observed in patients ≤45 years of age for thyroid cancer, leukemia and lymphoma.

CT scans may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer and leukemia and those diagnosed with NHL at a younger age.

The elevated risk in thyroid cancer and leukemia in association with medical CT is stronger in females than males.


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