PTEN tumor suppressor gene

Phosphate and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10q23.3.

PTEN gene on chromosome TEN, codes for the PTEN protein, which is involved as a negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

A tumor suppressor gene.

Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologous (PTEN), a protein and lipid phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphotidylinosotol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and has a role in cell cycle and metabolic pathways.

PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is a tumor suppressor gene encoding a protein PTEN, which possesses lipid and protein phosphatase-dependent as well as phosphatase-independent activities.

It has a classic tumor suppressor function attributed largely to its ability to dampen the growth promoting signaling cascade consisting of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ( PI3K), AKT, and mechanistic target rapamycin (mTOR)..

The PTEN/phospoionisitide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt) signaling pathway critical for growth, proliferationand survival of cancer cells.

A lipid M protein phosphatase and tumor suppressor that antagonizes proliferative and survival signaling via PI3K.

Located on chromosome 10 q arm and is an important mediator of carcinogenesis for a number of malignancies.

Mapped on 10q23, a chromosomal area with frequent loss of heterozygosity in cancers such as brain tumors, bladder cancers, prostate cancers, and uterine malignancies.

Alterations can occur from gene alterations, mutations, hypermethylation and transcriptional malfunction.

Loss of this gene confers increased lifetime risk of developing cancers.

A suppressor gene described in the Cowden syndrome.

Among the most common somatically mutated genes in tumorigenesis, and germline loss of function PTEN mutations cause the Cowden syndrome, a rare cancer predisposition syndrome.

PTEN also implicated in type II diabetes, since the PI3K-AKT pathway plays a role in insulin signaling.

Fasting Insulin levels are significantly lower in PTEN mutation carriers than in a control group.

The liver is the principal insulin responsive tissue, and fasting insulin levels predominately reflect insulin resistance in the liver.

PTEN haploinsufficiency increases the risk of obesity and cancer and type 2 diabetes, owing to enhanced insulin sensitivity.

PTEN loss and prostate cancer correlates with higher Gleason score, more advanced age and occurs with increased frequency in metastases.

Loss of PTEN activity results and activation of effectors of PI3K signaling. including mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR).

Partial or complete PTEN (gene) deficiency is observed in nearly all sacral chordomas.

m-TOR has a central role in cell cycle regulation, protein translation and in energy homeostasis.

Patient with germline PTEM U Tatian’s may have PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome which includes Cowden syndrome, Proteus syndrome and Proteus like syndromes.

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