After ingestion of protein the peripheral glucose concentration does not increase in healthy individuals or in patients with type II diabetes.

Diets rich in protein, especially plant protein, lower blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular risk.

Increased protein intake from mixed sources has favorable effects on lipids.

When people overeat a diet either high or low in protein, they become less metabolically efficient than diets of average protein intake (Stock MJ et al).

The greatest metabolic efficiency of weight gain during overfeeding is found when protein intake is 10-15% of the energy consumed and wasting of calories during overfeeding appears when diets contain low or high amounts of energy from protein.

In a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high-protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition: body fat in proportion to excess calories but overall weight gain was less with low-protein relative to normal or high-protein diets (Bray GA et al).

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III analyzed 6800 American adults and found that participants age 50 and above reported to eat a high protein diet were 4 times more likely die from cancer or diabetes, and twice is likely die from other causes in an 18 year follow-up.

The current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein for adults is 0.8 g/kg/day, which averages to ~50 g/d (56 g/d for men; 46 g/d for women) for average weight sedentary adults.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight, or .26 grams per pound of body weight. 

Individuals who consume moderate amounts of protein are 3 times more likely to die of cancer in the above study.In the above study effects of a high protein diet either disappeared or were greatly lessened in patients whose high protein diet was mostly plant-based.

There are opposite effects of animal and vegetable protein on the outcomes of type two diabetes, cardiovascular disease, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, with beneficial effects of vegetable protein and detrimental effects of animal proteins.
Evidence is growing about the beneficial effects of higher intakes of dietary total proteins on muscle mass and strength, physical functioning, hip fracture, and frailty.

1 gram of nitrogen is roughly equivalent to 6.25 grams of protein, and 1 gram of protein is roughly equivalent to 5 grams of muscle tissue. 

US recommended dietary allowance for protein is 0.8 g per kilogram per day based on short term nitrogen balance studies.

Recommendations for older adults suggest an average protein intake of 1-1.2 g per kilogram per day and even higher for those with acute or chronic diseases.

In the above study the effects of a high protein diet was nearly the opposite among patients age 65 or older, with a high protein intake associated with a 60% lower risk of death from cancer, and a 28% reduce risk of dying from any cause.

High intake of animal protein is positively associated with mortality, with the inverse true for high intake of plant proteins.

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