Refers to the study of the genetic basis of individual response to drugs.

Uses genomic and other information to individualize drug selection and drug use to avoid adverse reactions and to maximize drug efficacy.

Refers to the study of the role of genetic variation in drug response phenotypes

Effects of variation in genetics can range from serious, potentially life threatening adverse drug reaction to lack of therapeutic efficacy.

Indicates specific genes in a given individual is associated with particular responses, both beneficial and detrimental, to medications and other therapies.

HLA genes can influence drug responses:Examples Abacavir and B*57:01 With drug hypersensitivity, Allopurinol and B*58:01 with drug hypersensitivity, Carbamazine and B*15:02And Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

Clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics at the point of care will allow avoidance of adverse drug reactions, maximize drug efficacy, reduce drug to drug interactions and select medications based on the genetic profile of individuals.

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