Partially hydrogenated fats


 Fat hydrogenation is the process of combining fat, typically, vegetable oils with hydrogen, in order to make it more saturated.



Fat hydrogenation is usual carried out at very high pressure, with the help of a nickel catalyst.



Partial hydrogenation reduces most, but not all, of these carbon-carbon double bonds. 



Its goal is to turn liquid oils into solid or semi-solid fats that can replace butter and shortening in spreads, candies, baked good, and other products.



Partial hydrogenation of a typical plant oil to a typical component of margarine. 



Partial hydrogenation removes most of the C=C double bonds elevating the melting point of the product.



Hydrogenation converts liquid vegetable oils into solid or semi-solid fats: margarine. 



Changing the degree of saturation of the fat changes some important physical properties as the melting range.



Baking with solid or semi-solid fats is preferred for baking because the manner the fat mixes with flour produces a more desirable texture in the baked product. 



Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are cheaper than animal fats, are available in a wide range of consistencies, have increased oxidative stability and longer shelf life, makes them the  predominant fats used as shortening in most commercial baked goods.



Full hydrogenation results in a molecule containing the maximum amount of hydrogen. the converting  an unsaturated fatty acid into a saturated one.



Partial hydrogenation results in the addition of hydrogen atoms at some of the empty positions, with a corresponding reduction in the number of double bonds. 



Typical commercial hydrogenation obtains a malleable mixture of fats that is solid at room temperature, but melts during baking, or consumption.



((Trans fats)) are a result of partial hydrogenation.



Trans fats been  are implicated in circulatory diseases including heart disease.



Converting from cis to trans bonds is chemically favored because the trans configuration has lower energy than the natural cis one. 



The food industry has moved away from partially hydrogenated fats and towards fully hydrogenated fats and interesterified fats in response to bad publicity about trans fats, labeling requirements, and removal of trans fats from the FDA list of foods Generally Recognized as Safe.



Complete hydrogenation, hydrogenates any produced trans fats to give saturated fats.






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