See ((Fruit juice))


Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. 



Juice can also refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources.



It is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, as for smoothies. 



Pasteurization enables its preservation without using fermentation



Fruit juice consumption on average increases with country income level.



Juice is prepared by squeezing or macerating fruit or vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents. 



Many commercial juices are filtered to remove fiber or pulp, but high-pulp fresh orange juice is a popular beverage. 



Juice additives include: sugar and artificial flavors and  seasonings.



Juice preservation and processing techniques include: canning, pasteurization, concentrating, freezing, evaporation and spray drying.



The general processing method of juices includes:



Washing food source



Juice extraction



Straining, filtration



Blending pasteurization



Filling, sealing and sterilization



Cooling, labeling and packing after the fruits are picked and washed



Juice is extracted by one of two automated methods: two metal cups with sharp metal tubes on the bottom cup come together, removing the peel and forcing the flesh of the fruit through the metal tube. 



The second method requires the fruits to be cut in half before being subjected to reamers, which extract the juice.



After the juice is filtered, evaporators reduce the size of juice by a factor of 5, making it easier to transport and increasing its expiration date. 



Juices are concentrated by heating under a vacuum to remove water, and then cooling to around 13 degrees Celsius. 



About two thirds of the water in a juice is removed by concentrating the juice.



Juice is then later reconstituted with water and other factors to return any lost flavor from the concentrating process. 



Juices are also sold in a concentrated form.



Juices are then pasteurized and filled into containers, often while still hot. 



Pulsed electric fields are being used as an alternative to heat pasteurization in fruit juices. 



High intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) can be applied to fruit juices to provide a shelf-stable and safe product, with a fresh-like and high nutrition value product.



Pulsed electric field processing is a nonthermal method for food preservation, that inactivate microbes, and has minimal detrimental effects on the quality of the food.



Pulse electric fields kill microorganisms and provide better maintenance of the original color, flavour, and nutritional value of the food as compared to heat treatments.



Pulse electric field temperatures are below that of the temperatures used in thermal processing.



After high voltage treatment, the juice is aseptically packaged and refrigerated.



Pulsed electric fields are able to inactivate microorganisms, extend shelf life, and reduce enzymatic activity of the juice while maintaining similar quality as the original, fresh pressed juice.



Fruit juice term can only legally be used in the US to describe a product which is 100% fruit juice. 



A blend of fruit juice(s) with other ingredients, such as high-fructose corn syrup, is called a juice cocktail or juice drink.



The term nectar is generally accepted in the US and in international trade for a diluted juice to denote a beverage that contains fruit juice or puree, water, and artificial sweeteners.



No added sugar  may contain large amounts of naturally occurring sugars.



Beverages listed as 100% juice may actually contain unlisted additives. 




Most orange juice contains added ethyl butyrate to enhance flavor), vitamin C and water.



When fruit juice is too sour, acidic, or rich it may be diluted with water and sugar to create an -ade, such as lemonade, limeade, cherryade, and orangeade.



Juices are often consumed for their perceived health benefits: orange juice with natural or added vitamin C, folic acid, and potassium, carotenoids, and polyphenols that offer health benefits.



High consumption of fruit juice with added sugar may be linked to weight gain.



100% fruit juice is not associated with increased risk of diabetes.



However prospective cohort studies showed a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes when juices with added sugars were consumed compared to eating whole fruits.



There is no conclusive evidence that consumption of 100% fruit juice has adverse health effects.



A Cochrane review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to indicate that cranberry juice consumption has any effect on urinary tract infections.



Long-term tolerance of cranberry juice is also an issue with gastrointestinal upset occurring in more than 30% of people.



The American Academy of Pediatrics:  fruit juice should not be given to children under age one due to the lack of nutritional benefit.



For children ages one to six, intake of fruit juice should be limited to less than 4–6 oz (110–170 g) per day (about a half to three-quarters of a cup) due to its high sugar and low fiber content compared to fruit. 



Overconsumption of fruit juices may decrease nutrient intake compared to eating whole fruits.



Overconsumption of fruit juices may  produce diarrhea, gas, abdominal pain, bloating, or tooth decay.



Fruits and fruit juice may contribute to dental decay and cavities by the effect of fruit acids on tooth enamel.



Overconsumption of fruit juice with added sugars has also been linked to childhood obesity. 



Fruit juice consumption on average increases with country income level.



People in the United States consumed approximately 6.6 US gallons of juices per capita with more than half of preschool-age children being regular drinkers (2015).


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