Parasitic infections

Cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide.

Approximtely 25% of the world’s population have infection with intestinal helminths (de Silva et al).

Affects most vulnerable populations in the world.

Prevalence of intestinal parasites detected by stool examination among resettled African and Asian refugees to the US ranges from 14-64%.

Intestinal helminths can persist for years and are associated with increased risks of illness and deaths.

Protozoa are single cell eukaryotes that cause a variety of human diseases categorized as systemic or intestinal and do not usually cause eosinophilia.

Systemic protozoa infections include malaria, African trypanosomiasis, American trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis, Babesiosis, toxoplasmosis.

Intestinal and genitourinary protozoa include: Giardiasis, Amebiasis, Cryptosporidiosis, Cyclosporiasis, Isosporiasis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis, and Trichomoniasis vaginalis.

Free-living Amebae-Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba species, Balamuthia mandrillaris.

Helminth diseases including: Cestodes, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Dwarf tapeworm, D outiphyllobothrium latum, Echinococcosis, Trematodes, Schistosomiasis, Fascioliasis, Clonorchiasis, Opisthorchiasis, Paragonimiasis, Intestinal flukes, Nematodes.

Intestinal nematodes-soil transmitted Helminths, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis

Extra intestinal (tissue) nematodes-Trichinellosis, Toxocariasis, Filariasis, Lymphatic filariasis, Onchocerciasis, Loaiasis,

Other tissue nematodes: Cutaneous Larva Migrans, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Baylisascaris procyonis, Gnathostoma, spinigerum, Capillaria philippinensis,

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