Obesity during adolescence from ages 10 to 19 years is associated with pre-diabetes, type two diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovary syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, mental health disorders, and social stigma.
In a study of 2.3 million persons, BMI in late adolescence that went between 85th and 94th percentiles and above the 95th percentile associated with hazard ratios for sudden death and for death from coronary heart disease, or a stroke during adulthood of 2.5 and 3.5, X respectively.
Decreasing adiposity between childhood and adulthood is associated with reductions in cardiometabolic risk factors.
The prevalence of obesity in adolescence has increased since the 1980s: more so in low income communities and communities of color.
COVID-19 increased the percentage of obesity among adolescents.
Recommended laboratory testing in adolescents with obesity include screening for dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, and diabetes.
Management requires a multidisciplinary, long term model, including lifestyle modification, dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and anti-obesity medications along with possible bariatric surgery.