An amide form of vitamin B3.

Enhances DNA repair and protects the skin’s immune system from UV light exposure.

Active in attenuating UV induced skin damage and decreases development of actinic keratoses.

Daily oral drug reduces the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses in individuals at high risk.

A form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.

As a supplement, it is used by mouth to prevent and treat niacin deficiency-pellagra.

While nicotinic acid, niacin, may be used for this purpose, nicotinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing.

As a cream, it is used to treat acne.

Side effects are minimal, but at high doses liver problems may occur.

Normal amounts are safe for use during pregnancy.

Foods that contain nicotinamide include yeast, meat, milk, and green vegetables.

It is available as a generic medication and over the counter.

It is the preferred treatment for niacin deficiency, pellagra.

Pellagra, a similar condition to Hartnup disease is also caused by low nicotinamide; this disorder results in dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia.

Nicotinamide is necessary for neutral amino acid transporter production in the proximal renal tubules found in the kidney, and intestinal mucosal cells found in the small intestine. 


Therefore, a symptom stemming from Hartnup disorder results in increased amounts of amino acids in the urine. 

Nicotinic acid may be used, nicotinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing.

Nicotinamide in the form of a cream is used as a treatment for acne, as it has anti-inflammatory actions.

Nicotinamide increases the biosynthesis of ceramides in human keratinocytes in vitro and improves the epidermal permeability barrier in vivo.

2% topical nicotinamide is effective in lowering the sebum excretion rate.

The treatment of actinic keratoses with nicotinamide reduces the occurrence of new basal cell cancer by 20% had a 12 month follow up.

Prevents Propionibacterium acnes-induced activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, which results in the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory IL-8 production.

Side effects are minimal, but at high doses liver problems may occur.

Safe for use during pregnancy.

A component of the vitamin B family and specifically the vitamin B3 complex biological systems.

It is an important part of the structures of NADH and NAD+.

Nicotinamide can also be made from nicotinic acid.

The nicotinamide group on the molecule NAD+ undergoes oxidation in many metabolic pathways.

Nicotinamide, as a part of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH / NAD+) is essential for life.

Nicotinamide is incorporated into NAD+ and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) in cells.

NAD+ and NADP+ are coenzymes in a wide variety of enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions.

These coenzymes act in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.

After ingestion of nicotinamide, a series of reactions transform it into NAD, which can then undergo a transformation to form NADP+.

Humans can produce NAD+ from the amino acid tryptophan and niacin without our ingestion of nicotinamide.

NAD+ helps with the interconversion of energy by acting as an electron carrier between nutrients and the cell’s ATP.

In oxidation-reduction reactions, the active part of the coenzyme is the nicotinamide.

When a hydride atom is added onto NAD+ to form NADH, the molecule loses stability.

NADH is a higher energy product that later releases its energy with the release of a hydride, and in the case of the electron transport chain, it assists in forming adenosine triphosphate.

158.2 kJ of energy is released for every one mole of NADH that is oxidized.

Occurs in trace amounts mainly in meat, fish, nuts, and mushrooms, as well as to a lesser extent in some vegetables.

It is commonly added to cereals and other foods.

Nicotinamide it is present in many multivitamins, and there are around 20–30 mg in each.

There is evidence for its effective use to treat autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

It inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP-1), enzymes involved in the rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by radiation or chemotherapy.

In people at high risk, nicotinamide reduces the rate of new nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses.

It may be converted by the body back to tryptophan.

Tryptophan is involved in the pathway that includes 5-HTP, serotonin and melatonin production.

This pathway effects on mood and sleep, and nicotinamide or niacinamide supplements to help patients to get good sleep.

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