Vague unpleasant feeling often associated with an urge to vomit.

Often described by individuals as being sick to their stomach or queasy.

Frequently associated with vomiting.

Usually precedes vomiting and may be associated with pallor, sweating and flushed feeling, cold sweats, tachycardia, and diarrhea.

Mediated be efferent stimuli from vomiting center in the brain.

Nausea is a cerebral sensation, while vomiting is a brain stem response.

Commonly associated adverse reaction to medications such as NSAIDs, chemotherapy agents, antidepressants, analgesics, antibiotics, and hormonal therapy.

Associated with gastrointestinal, CNS, metabolic, medication and psychiatric causes.

Nausea an vomiting common in cancer patients and they are frequently unrelated to chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Commonly associated with bacterial and viral infections.

Constipation is a frequent cause of chronic nausea.

Associated with neurotransmitters acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin and dopamine.

Commonly associated with bacterial and viral infections.

The brain and GI tract particularly associated with nausea and vomiting.

The motor control of the gut involved at three levels: the parasympathetic ans sympathetic nervous system, the smooth muscle cells and the enteric brain neurons.

The stomach lining, the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the floor of the fourth ventricle, the vestibular apparatus and the brain cortex all involved with the physiology of nausea.

The final common pathway from the above four areas is the vomiting center, causing the neuromuscular reflex.

All four neurotransmitters are located in the chemoreceptor trigger zone, and the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.

Serotonin is particularly important in the gastrointestinal tract, while acetylcholine and histamine are important in the vestibular apparatus.

Cortex mediated nausea/vomiting not associated with specific neurotransmitters.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *