Lung abscess

Usually begins as a localized pneumonia and results in tissue damage and lung necrosis with the formation of a inflammatory lung cavity.

Increased frequency related to immunosuppressive agents and the development of opportunistic infections.

Acute or chronic in nature, with a dividing time of 4-6 weeks.

Primary process related to aspiration, while secondary lesions usually complication of a preexisting bronchogenic carcinoma or to an immune compromised status.

Most cases related to anaerobic bacteria that predominate in the upper respiratory tract and particularly in the oral and gingival areas.

Related to: oral cavity disease with gingivitis and periodontal disease, altered consciousness from alcoholism, drug abuse, seizures, anesthesia administration or coma, immunocompromised host from corticosteroid therapy, chemotherapy, trauma, impaired nutrition, immunosuppressive agents, and HIV, esophageal abnormalities with reflux, achalasia, esophageal obstruction, respiratory abnormalities with impaired cough and gag reflex, malignancy, presence of a foreign body, bronchial stricture and the presence of sepsis.

Aspiration of infectious material most frequent etiologic mechanism in its development.

Poor oral hygiene, presence of dental infections and gingival disease common in such patients and edentulous patients rarely develop such an abscess since they lack periodontal flora.

Alcoholic patients and those with chronic illnesses frequently have colonization of the oropharynx with gram negative bacterial organisms.

Can occur from the aspiration of infectious material when the cough reflex is suppressed in a patient with gingivodental disease.

most cases occur in the right lung and involve the posterior segment of the right upper lobe, the superior segment of the lower lobe, or both.

Gravity brings infectious material to settle in the distal bronchial system and develops into a localized pneumonitis, with enlarging inflammation with exudate, blood and necrotic lung tissue.

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