Yellow discoloration due to issued deposition of biliary pigments.
Clinically best demonstrated by examining the sclera or the mucous membranes under the tongue.
Scleral jaundice can usually be appreciated when the bilirubin level is above 2.5-3 mg/dL.
Differential diagnosis includes infectious disease, malignancy, auto-immune process, metabolic disorders, and toxins.
Acute cholecystitis, cholangitis, bile duct cancer, pancreatic cancer, Wilson disease, Gilbert syndrome, acetaminophen overdose, alcohol, anti mitochondrial antibody associated primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis, parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Herpes simplex hepatitis, acute and chronic viral hepatitis, ischemic hepatitis.
Infections with bacteria and parasites may cause jaundice such as the Weil syndrome and infection caused by Leptospira spirochete.