Are caused by bacteremia, direct inoculation, a spread from infected sinuses, mastoid air cells, or the middle ear.
May occur in patients with right to left shunt, such as with the patent foramen ovale or large pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.
Contact from traumatic or surgical wounds may cause intracranial bacterial infection.
Intracranial abscesses and empyema are associated with high risk of severe complications and death, if not treated on a rapid basis.
Complications of intracranial bacterial infection include bacterial meningitis, brain compression, hydrocephalus, elevated intracranial pressure, dural sinus thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, and seizure activity.