Interleukin-11(IL-11) (Neumega)

Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is a secreted protein that stimulates megakaryocytopoiesis, initially thought to lead to an increased production of platelets.

Interleukin 11, IL-11 or adipogenesis inhibitory factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL11 gene.

 Initially thought to be important for hematopoiesis, notably for megakaryocyte maturation, but is redundant for platelets, and for other blood cell types.

It has been developed as a recombinant protein (rhIL-11) as the drug substance oprelvekin.

 It is redundant to normal platelet formation.

The IL-11 gene is located on chromosome 19,  and encodes a 23 kDa protein. 

IL-11 is a member of the IL-6-type cytokine family, distinguished based on their use of the common co-receptor gp130. 

Its signal specificity is provided by the IL-11Rα subunit which is expressed at high levels in fibroblasts and other stromal cells but not immune cells.

IL-11 through its binding to its transmembrane IL-11Rα receptor and resultant activation of downstream signaling pathways that regulate adipogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, neurogenesis and platelet maturation.

The over-expression of IL-11 is associated with a variety of cancers and may provide a link between inflammation and cancer.

It activates osteoclasts, inhibiting epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, and inhibiting macrophage mediator production. 

These functions help mediating the hematopoietic, osseous and mucosal protective effects of interleukin 11.

Has limited efficacy in thrombocytopenia and is associated with significant side effects.

-11 improves platelet recovery after chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, induce acute phase proteins, modulate antigen-antibody responses, participate in the regulation of bone cell proliferation and differentiation IL-11 causes bone-resorption. 

It stimulates the growth of certain lymphocytes, and it has functions in many other tissues, including the brain, gut, testis, kidney and bone.

Iterleukin 11 has a variety of functions associated with its receptor interleukin 11 receptor alpha including: placentation and to some extent decidualization, blastocyst implantation in the uteral endometrium.

Interleukin 11 is manufactured using recombinant DNA technology.

It is marketed as a protein therapeutic called oprelvekin, for the prevention of severe thrombocytopenia in cancer patients.

As IL-11 over expression is associated with a number of cancers.

Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) via regulation of IL-11, stimulates collagen production and is important in wound healing. 

The dysregulation of TGFβ1 and downstream IL-11 is associated with fibrotic diseases.

IL- cytokine promotes recruitment of immune suppressive cancer-associated fibroblasts to tumors and facilitates chemoresistance.

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