A rare disease with a poor prognosis.
Presents as 4 major situations: native valve, prosthetic valve, endocardial surface, and indwelling cardiac device related endocarditis.
Incidence increasing due to increase use of external devices, ranging from prosthetic heart valves to central venous catheters.
Prevalence of fungal infective endocarditis is between one and 10% of all cases of infective endocarditis.
The rate of fungal infection and cardiovascular devices-prosthetic valves, pacemakers, and implantable cardioverter defibrillators and ventricular assist devices is 2-10%, 4 1/2%, and 35 to 39%, respectively.
Candida species are isolated in 53-80% of cases of fungal endocarditis and Candida albicans is the most common type.