Foodborne disease

Foodborne disease outbreak defined as the occurrence of two or more similar illnesses resulting from ingestion of a common food.

Referred to as food poisoning.

Any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.

Food contaminated with bacteria and that remains at room temperature for a period of several hours, the bacteria multiply and increase the risk of infection in those who consume the food.

Bad bacteria in food at room temperature can double every 20 minutes.

The incubation period ranges from hours to days.

Incubation period depends on the cause and on how much of it was consumed.

Symptoms often include abuse, vomiting, fever, and aches, and may diarrhea

31 known infectious agents associated with foodborne disease.

Foods commonly associated with illness include: raw or undercooked meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs; raw sprouts; unpasteurized milk, soft cheeses; and fruit and vegetable juices.

Causes an estimated 48 million illnesses and 3000 deaths annually.

Approximately 128,000 hospitalizations per year in the United States.

Based on the above estimates 27% of Americans can expect to have a foodborne illness each year, 115 per 100,000 thousand population would be hospitalized and almost 2 per hundred thousand would die.

CDC estimates 48 million foodborne illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations and 3000 deaths per year, with 15% of Americans having a foodborne illness annually, and 41 in 100,000 will be hospitalized and one in 100,000 will die (2011).

Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of the CDCs Emerging Infections Program has found rates of infections with shigella, yersinia, Shiga-toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) O157, campylobacter, and listeria were at least 25% lower than they were a decade ago, but salmonella was only 10% lower (Osterholm MT)).

In 2008 1,034 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported resulting in 23,152 cases of illness, 1276 hospitalizations and 22 deaths.

Among 479 outbreaks with confirmed etiology, nor rotavirus was the most common accounting for 49% of outbreaks, and 46% of illnesses, salmonella was second most common with 23% of outbreaks and 31% of illnesses.

Among 218 outbreaks attributed to a food vehicle with ingredients from one of 17 defined food commodities the most common commodities to which outbreaks were attributed where poultry 15%, beef 14%, and finfish 14%, whereas top commodities to which outbreak related illnesses were attributed to fruits and nuts 24%, vine-stalk vegetables 23% and beef 13%.

OF the total number of outbreak related foodborne illnesses. Approximately 6% resulted in hospitalization with salmonella the most common cause causing 62% of hospitalizations, followed by Shiga toxin producing E. coli 17%, and Nora virus 7%.

Clostridium botulinum outbreaks resulted in the highest proportion of persons hospitalized at 90%, followed by Wisteria outbreaks 76%.

Vibrio foodborne infection increased substantially from 1996-1998 to 2009 (Foodnet).

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