Fever

Elevation of core body temperature above normal.

Fever defined as a single oral temperature of at least 38.3C or 101F.

Febrile state ref2242ed to a temperature of at least 38C (100.4F) for at least one hour.

Estimated that fever is the primary complaint for 30% of patients seen by pediatricians.

In response to infections occurs in more than one third of patients.

Body temperature >41C treatment is indicated.

Each 1degree C increase in body temperature is accompanied by a 13% increase in oxygen consumption.

The overwhelming majority of nontoxic but febrile infants and young children have a viral infection.

The risk of poor functional outcome is increased with even mild temperature elevation after ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage.

Sustained fevers associated with poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Frequency of fever among hospitalized patients is about 29%.

Pulmonary infections are the predominant causes of infectious fever in patients with stroke.

Occurs in about 25% of patients in neurologic intensive care units and is associated with depressed level of consciousness.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with increased risk of developing fever.

About 53% of fevers in critically ill medical and surgical patients have infection as the cause of fever.

One component of the response to a complex body reaction involving cytokine mediated increase in body temperature, increase in acute phase reactants, and activation of endocrine and immunologic mechanisms.

Treatment of fever is based on the rationale that it places additional physiologic stress on patients.

Fever may enhance immune cell function, inhibit growth of pathogens, increase the activity of antimicrobial drugs and studies have shown the hiigher early fever is associated with a lower risk of death among patients in the ICU admitted for infection.

In a randomized study of 700 patients with fever treated with intravenous acetaminophen or placebo did not affect the number of ICU free days open (Young P et al).

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