A disorder of awareness and arousal due to brain injury interrupting neuronal networks that result in consciousness.

Persistent un-rousable unresponsiveness.

Related to structural or general dysfunction of the brainstem, thalamus, and cerebral hemispheres

Glasgow coma scale is the standard method to describe the level of coma and carries prognostic value in brain trauma.

In the initial evaluation of a patient with coma resuscitation measures may be necessary before evaluation of the process is started.

Typically associated with closed eyes and no response to vigorous stimulation.

Patients in coma may move extremities, grimace, and have withdrawal responses to painful stimuli, but without localizing or discrete defensive movement.

In deep coma no response to pain may occur.

Laboratory evaluation includes blood sugar, arterial blood gases, electrolyte studies, blood counts, chemistry profile, blood cultures, toxic screen, thyroid function tests, and liver function tests.

EEG findings relate to extent of underlying brain injury, but high amplitude, low frequency activity frequently resembling that of general anesthesia is seen.

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