Bladder stones (Cystolithiasis)


Bladder stones are crystallized minerals that form when concentrated urine hardens in the bladder after urination.

While 90 percent of urine is water, the remainder contains minerals, such as salt, and waste products, such as protein.

Concentrated urine is often the result of dehydration or the inability to completely empty your bladder.

Typical symptoms of bladder stones are:

frequent urination


lower abdominal pain

a burning sensation or pain in the urethra when urinating

bloody or cloudy urine


The majority of people who develop bladder stones are men, particularly older men with prostate problems.

Seen in patients with diets high in fat and sugar.

Children who live in developing countries are also susceptible to bladder stones.

Conditions that may contribute to bladder stones include:

Infection-UTIs are a common cause of bladder stones.

Damaged urethra

Enlarged prostate gland

Neurogenic bladder

Women have more bladder infections than men, yet have fewer bladder stones than men.

Bladder trabeculation

Kidney stones-differ in their development, they may become bladder stones when they reach the bladder.

Diagnostic tests may include:


Spiral CT scan




Treatment-cystolitholapaxy using laser energy or ultrasound waves to break stones down into smaller pieces for removal.

If stones don’t break down with this procedure, removal surgery may be necessary.

The outlook for treatment of bladder stones is positive.

Occurrence has decreased over the past 2 decades, but still present in children in the developing worlds and in patients with neurogenic bladders and benign prostatic hypertrophy.

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