Biomarkers are biological or physiological measurements that mirror a disease process.

Biomarkers can fall into several different categories: biomarkers of risk, diagnostic biomarkers, and prognostic and predictive biomarkers for treatment. 

Biomarkers may or may not represent appropriate targets for treatment.

A biomarker is a biologic molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or a condition or disease.

Defined as a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention.

Ideally, should be accurate, and measurable with simple, inexpensive and repeatable way and carried out in an easily available body fluid such as serum, urine, or prostate fluid.

Risk biomarkers entail germline genetic factors that predetermine risk for developing cancer.


Biomarker testing with immunohistochemistry: can assess mismatch repair enzymes MLH1, MS1MSH2 PMS 2, HER2,  programmed cell death protein-1, BRAFV600 E mutation and Claudine 18.2 protein expression.

Genomic/transcription analysis analysis with NGS can identify actionable targets for cancer therapy, including FGR2 amplification, IDH 1mutations, BRAFV600 E mutations KRAS pathway and Claudin 18.2 and NTRK and RET fusions.


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