Bladder outlet obstruction

Associated with several clinical symptoms including: a weak urinary stream, a sensation of incomplete urination, and urinary frequency.

The above symptoms are referred to as lower urinary tract symptoms and include voiding or obstructive symptoms such as hesitancy, poor or intermittent stream, or both, straining, prolonged micturation, dribbling, and irritative symptoms such as frequency urgency, urge incontinence and nocturia.

The most frequent lower urinary tract symptoms include hesitancy, a weak urine stream, and nocturia.

BPH frequently causes lower urinary tract symptoms.

BPH is common in men older than 60 years, and among individuals 81-90 years the prevalence approaches 90%.

BPH is associated with benign smooth muscle and epithelial cell proliferation within the prostate transitional zone.

The prostate transition zone has two lobes and surrounds the proximal urethra.

The prostate located at the base of the bladder contains the prostatic urethra and as cellular hyperplasia expands the transition zone volume it is compressed resulting in bladder outlet obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms.

The evaluation uses the Abrams-Griffiths nomogram indicating maximal urinary flow while voiding, plotted against voiding the detrusor pressure to determine whether bladder obstruction is present.

The American Urological Association Symptom Index, also known as the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) is utilized to determine the severity of disease, response to therapy, and symptom progression.

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