Commonly involve skeleton, head, peripheral nerves, adrenals and liver.
Problems may be acute or long-standing.
Injuries include clavicle fractures, facial nerve injuries, brachial plexus injuries, intracranial injury, humerus fracture, and lacerations.
Large for gestational age infants are at higher risk for injury and particularly those involving the skeleton and peripheral nerves
Intracranial hemorrhages are common and are related to excessive molding of the head or sudden pressure changes in its shape due to the pressure of forceps or sudden expulsion.
Intracranial hemorrhages may be associated with prolonged labor, hypoxia, hemorrhagic disorders, or intravascular anomalies.
Intracranial hemorrhages may originate from tears in the dura or from ruptured vessels crossing the brain.
May cause damage to the substance of the brain with intraventricular bleeding or parenchymal bleeding.