Angiotensin II

Plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

Main role of this hormone is blood vessel constriction.

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor in a substrate concentration-dependent manner.


Angiotensin II binds to the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1), which sets off a number of actions that result in vasoconstriction and therefore increased blood pressure.


Causes cardiac hypertrophy and thickens and stiffens blood vessels.

Elevated levels in heart failure.

Angiotensin I is then almost immediately converted by an enzyme present in the blood to the active form of the protein, angiotensin II. 



Angiotensin II reaches the posterior pituitary gland and the adrenal cortex, where it causes a cascade effect of hormones that cause the kidneys to retain water and sodium, increasing blood pressure.

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