Actinomycosis

Infectious disease caused by Actinomyces species such as Actinomyces israelii or A. gerencseriae, which are anaerobic organisms.

A subacute-to-chronic bacterial infection caused by filamentous, gram-positive, non–acid-fast, anaerobic-to-microaerophilic bacteria.

Associated with contiguous spread, suppuration and granulomatous inflammation.

Can also be caused by Propionibacterium propionicus’

Likely to be polymicrobial aerobic anaerobic infection.

Occurs rarely in humans.

Occurs frequently in cattle as a disease called lumpy jaw.

Characterized by the formation of painful abscesses which grow over time in the mouth, lungs, or gastrointestinal tract.

Lesions may penetrate the surrounding bone and muscle to the skin, and drain purulent material via the sinus cavities contains granules.

Formation of multiple abscesses and sinus tracts that may discharge sulfur granules.

Actinomyces produce granules that are bright yellow and localized in tissues, and such organisms can pass through tissue planes leading to sinus formation and skin surface drainage.

Most common clinical forms of actinomycosis are cervicofacial, thoracic, and abdominal.

Pelvic actinomycosis may occur with intrauterine devices.

Associated with recent dental work, poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, or radiation therapy causing local tissue damage to the oral mucosa.

Actinomyces bacteria responds to penicillin.

Doxycycline or sulfonamides such as sulfamethoxazole may be used as an alternatives.

Treatmenr response is slow and may take months.

Incidence in males between the ages of 20 and 60 years and more common than in females.

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