Refers to a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.

Has become popular as a system of physical exercise across the Western world.

Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise; it has a meditative and spiritual core.

May reduce risk factors and aid in a patient’s psychological healing process.

The 12 month prevalence has increased from 3.8% in 2004 to 8.9% in 2016, with a lifetime prevalence of 13.2%.

A meditative means of discovering dysfunctional perception and cognition, as well as overcoming it for release from suffering, inner peace and salvation.

Yoga promotes mental, physical and spiritual awareness and its benefits as a form of stretching, and as an enhancer of breath control and of core strength.

Increasingly recommended to promote relaxation, reduce stress and some medical conditions.

A low-impact activity that can provide the same benefits as a well-designed exercise program, increasing general health and stamina, reducing stress, and improving those conditions brought about by sedentary lifestyles.

Can be used as a complete exercise program and physical therapy routine.

It is marketed as a supplement to a cardio routine with health benefits, but in Hinduism it is more than exercise and incorporates meditation with spiritual benefits.

A systematic review found strong evidence that yoga was effective for low back pain in the short-term, and moderate evidence that it was effective in the long-term.

Can be used for treatment of cancer patients to decrease depression, insomnia, pain, and fatigue and to increase anxiety control.

Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programs include yoga as a mind-body technique to reduce stress.

Individuals treated with yoga report significantly less mood disturbance and reduced stress compared to the control group, and shows positive effects on sleep anxiety, quality of life, and spiritual growth in cancer patients.

Among cancer survivors yoga, effectively improves cancer related fatigue, insomnia, cognitive impairment, arthralgias, and pain.

May help alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia and improve health-related quality of life.

Has been shown to help substance abuse addicts increase their quality of life.

Has been shown to have some cognitive functioning benefit.

Yoga as a safe and potentially effective therapy for children and adolescents coping with emotional, mental, physical, and behavioral health conditions.


Yoga can teach children to self-regulate, focus, and handle problems peacefully. 


It may also improve balance and relieve tension, and increase strength when practiced regularly. 

Has been criticized for being potentially dangerous and being a cause for a range of serious medical conditions including thoracic outlet syndrome, degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine, spinal stenosis, retinal tears, damage to the common fibular nerve, torn muscles, knee injuries, and headaches are common ailments which may result from yoga practice.

Headstands, shoulder stands, lotus and half lotus. forward bends, backward bends, and handstands produced the greatest number of injuries.

Meditation, breathing exercises, and certain postures which are safe and beneficial for women in pregnancy are recommended.

Vertebral artery dissection, can result from rotation of the neck while the neck is extended, can could occur in some yoga practices.

Acetabular labral tears, have been reported to have resulted from yoga practice.

Patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis have increased risk of compression fractures and deformities and should avoid extreme spinal flexion.

The most common injuries associated with yoga are soft tissue, mechanical, and musculoskeletal injuries related to poor posture.

Patients with degenerative disc disease or facet arthropathy experience exacerbation of the symptoms after certain poses, particularly those of extreme flexion and extension.

Soft tissue injuries such as sprains, or strains are the most common injuries reported.

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