Known as a rhytide, is a crease, fold, or ridge in the skin.
Wrinkles on the face and hands are a normal sign of aging.
Are a result of aging processes such as glycation, loss of body mass, or temporarily, from prolonged immersion in water.
Wrinkles are promoted by repeated facial expressions, aging, sun damage, and smoking.
Tretinoin decreases cohesiveness of follicular epithelial cells, and stimulates mitotic activity and increased turnover of follicular epithelial cells.
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) stimulates cell renewal but decreases collagen production in the skin.
Collagen degradation leads to wrinkles that accompany aging.
Glycosaminoglycans in the body maintain structural integrity in tissues and to maintain fluid balance, and can be used as topical supplements to provide temporary restoration of enzyme balance to slow or prevent matrix breakdown and wrinkle formation.
Dermal fillers are injectable products frequently used to correct wrinkles.
Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles, and is indicated for the treatment of glabellar lines in adults.
Wrinkles that occur in skin after prolonged exposure to water, referred to as pruney fingers or water aging skin, is due to absorption in the keratin-laden epithelial skin when immersed in water.
Skin wrinkling does not occur in the areas of patients’ skin that is denervated, suggesting the nervous system plays an essential role in wrinkling.
Wrinkling may be related to vasoconstriction.