Weight gain





An increase in body weight can involve an increase in muscle mass, fat deposits, excess fluids such as water.

Can be a symptom of a serious medical condition.

Gaining weight due to increased body fat deposits, leads to becoming overweight or obese.

Defined as having more adipose tissue than is considered healthy.

The Body Mass Index (BMI) measures body weight in proportion to the square of height and defines excessive weight based on the ratio.

The gaining of weight has a latency period.

Food intake’s effect on weight gain varies by: by the energy(calorie) density of foods, exercise, amount of water intake, amount of salt contained in the food, time of day eaten, age of individual, ethnicity, individual’s overall stress level, and amount of water retention in ankles/feet.

The latency period from ingestion of food to weight gain varies from three days to two weeks

As many as 64% of the United States adult population is considered either overweight or obese.

There is an assumption that one pound of human fat tissue contains about 3,500 kilocalories, and eating 500 fewer calories than one needs per day should result in a loss of about a pound per week. and for every 3500 calories consumed above the amount one needs, a pound will be gained.

Unfortunately, studies did not take into account numerous aspects of human physiology and biochemistry which refute this assumption.

Abperson generally gains weight by increasing food consumption, becoming physically inactive, or both.

When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure the body can store the excess energy as fat.

Other factors beside energy balance that may contribute to gaining weight include:

Social factor: one’s social networks play a surprisingly powerful role in determining an individual’s chances of gaining weight, transmitting an increased risk of becoming obese from wives to husbands, from brothers to brothers and from friends to friends.

The human microbiota: facilitates fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids, which contribute to weight gain.

The proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in the bowel may determine host’s risk of obesity.

Lack of sufficient sleep is suggested as a cause for weight gain or difficulty in maintaining a healthy weight.

Leptin inhibits appetite and increases energy expenditure.

Ghrelin, increases appetite and reduces energy expenditure.

Chronic sleep deprivation is associated with reduced levels of leptin and elevated levels of ghrelin, resulting in increased appetite, especially for high fat and high carbohydrate foods.

Sleep deprivation over time may contribute to increased caloric intake and decreased self-control over food cravings, leading to weight gain.

Weight gain is a common side-effect of several psychiatric medications.

Pathological causes of weight gain include Cushing’s syndrome, hypothyroidism, insulinoma, and craniopharyngioma.

Genetic reasons can relate to Prader–Willi syndrome and Bardet–Biedl syndrome.

Medication side effects can indirectly contribute to weight gain as they may decrease the motivation for physical activity.

Medical conditions associated with obesity include: osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, some forms of cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance,a proinflammatory state and an increased tendency to thrombosis.

The average weight of women between ages 30 and 60 has increased by 20 pounds, or 14%, since 1976. Among women who weigh 300 pounds or more, the increase was 18%.

As we age we tend to gain weight, about of 1 to 2 pounds per year.

Obesity incidence starts increasing in the twenties and peaks at 40 to 59, and then decreases slightly after age 60.

Body weight is highly influenced by genetic makeup, the level of physical activity, and food choices.

The amount of lean muscle we have naturally begins to decline by 3 to 8 percent per decade after age 30, a process called sarcopenia.

Lean muscle uses more calories than fat.

As lean muscle mass decreases fewer calories are needed, so it makes weight gain likely if one consumes the same number of calories as when they were younger.

Menopause causes a significant drop in estrogen that encourages extra pounds to settle around the abdomen.

This shift in fat storage may make the weight gain more noticeable and increase the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes.

Fluctuations in estrogen levels during perimenopause, the years leading up to menopause, may cause fluctuations in mood that make it more difficult to stick to a healthy diet and exercise plan.

The average weight gain during the transition to menopause is about five pounds.

Men, experience a significant drop in testosterone as they age, which begins to gradually decline around age 40 at a rate of about 1 to 2 percent per year.

Testosterone is responsible for regulating fat distribution and muscle strength and mass, and its declines can make the body less effective at burning calories.

The pituitary gland’s production of growth hormone (GH) also declines from middle age onward, and one of its functions is to build and maintain muscle mass.

Decreases in muscle mass slows metabolism, a complex process that converts calories into energy.

Having more fat and less muscle reduces calorie burning.

People become less active with age, which slows metabolism.


Stress increases the hormone ghrelin, which increases hunger.

To maintain weight: increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease the amount of fast food, sugar, and other processed foods, prioritize whole foods — vegetables, beans, nuts, and fruit, downsize portions, adjust diet to body’s lower calorie needs as a gradual process.

Staying hydrated with water ramps up metabolism, increasing the breakdown of fat.

For many, stress leads to stress eating.

Experiencing a half hour a day of aerobic exercise is recommended.

Between seven and nine hours of sleep per night is recommended to maintain activity.






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