Originates from the inner ear.

Described as spinning sensation or being in motion.

A type of dizziness, referring to nonspecific sensation of spatial disorientation.

Refers to an illusion of movement with spinning of the environment.

May refer to a sense of tilting.

Must be differentiated from orthostatic hypotension, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, cerebeller disease, hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, drug related problems, migraines, multiple sclerosis, malignancy or psychogenic causes.

Nonotologic vertigo described as unsteadiness, lightheadedness, or syncope.

Transient problems lasting from seconds to minutes is most commonly due to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, caused by stimulation of the vestibular system by free-flowing calcium carbonate crystals within the semicircular canals.

The most common form of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo involves the posterior semicircular canal.

That lasts for hours is associated with Meniere’s disease with hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness, caused by an increase in endolymph volume within the inner ear.

That lasts for days is usually related to viral labyrinthitis.

Viral infection of the inner ear and the patient may suffer with disequilibria for months.

That lasts for prolonged periods of time may be caused by temporal bone trauma.

Central vertigo associated with nystagmus that may be horizontal, vertical, or rotatory toward the side of the lesion.

Central vertigo nystagmus is associated with a downbeat with craniocervical junction or cerebellum lesions and an upbeat with medullary lesions.

Central vertigo has a response to provocative maneuvers with a short or no latency.

Central vertigo is associated with nausea and vomiting when there is increased intracranial pressure.

Central vertigo associated with wide based and ataxic gate.

Central vertigo may be associated with cranial nerve abnormalities related to hearing, swallowing, facial sensation, and tongue strength.

Central vertigo is sometimes related to posture dependency.

Peripheral vertigo associated with horizontal or rotators nystagmus, usually away from lesion.

Peripheral vertigo associated with a 2-5 second latency in response to provocative maneuvers.

Peripheral vertigo variably associated with nause and vomiting.

Peripheral vertigo associated with narrow based and unsteady gait.

Peripheral vertigo not associated with cranial nerve abnormalities.

Peripheral vertigo associated with posture dependency.

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