Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed as food. 


The original meaning  is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruits, stems, leaves, roots, and seeds.


A vegetable may be defined as any plant, part of which is used for food.


The alternate culinary and cultural  definition often excludes foods derived from some plants that are fruits, flowers, nuts, and cereal grains, but include savory fruits such as tomatoes and, flowers such as broccoli, and seeds.


China is the largest producer of vegetables.


Harvesting of vegetable is followed by grading, storing, processing, and marketing.


Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked.people focus more on eating at least 2 1/2 cups of vegetables every day — ideally, ones of various colors, and a combination of both raw and cooked.”


Vegetables supply dietary fiber and are important sources of essential vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. 



Essential vitamins in  vegetables are the antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E. 



Vegetables in the diet is related to the reduction in the incidence of cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic ailments.

 It is recommend eating at least 2 1/2 cups of vegetables every day — ideally, ones of various colors, and a combination of both raw and cooked.


Compared with individuals who eat less than three servings of fruits and vegetables each day, those that eat more than five servings have an approximately twenty percent lower risk of developing coronary heart disease or stroke.


The nutritional content of vegetables vary widely.


Some vegetables contain useful amounts of protein.

Vegetables generally they contain little fat.


There are varying proportions of vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin K, and vitamin B6; provitamins; dietary minerals; and carbohydrates in vegetables.


Vegetables often contain toxins and antinutrients, which can interfere with the absorption of nutrients: α-solanine, α-chaconine, enzyme inhibitors of cholinesterase, protease, amylase, cyanide and cyanide precursors, oxalic acid, tannins and others.


Vegetable toxins are plants natural defenses, used to ward off the insects, predators and fungi.


Vegetable toxins are deactivated by adequate cooking.


Fruit and vegetables, particularly leafy vegetables, implicated in nearly half the gastrointestinal infections caused by norovirus.


Fruit and vegetables are commonly eaten raw and may become contaminated during their preparation by an infected food handler. 



Foods to be eaten raw, should be properly cleaned, handled, and stored to limit contamination.


The USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends consuming five to nine servings of fruit and vegetables daily.



Potatoes are not included in the count as they are mainly providers of starch. 


Most vegetables and vegetable juices, one serving is half of a cup and can be eaten raw or cooked. 


For leafy greens, such as lettuce and spinach, a single serving is typically a full cup.


No single fruit or vegetable provides all the nutrients needed for health.


Some vegetables are staple foods but most are accessory foodstuffs.


Vegetables add variety and nutrients necessary for health, to meals.


Some vegetables are perennials.


Most vegetables are  annuals and biennials, usually harvested within a year of sowing or planting. 


Vegetable cultivation follows a similar pattern; soil preparation by loosening it, removing weeds, and adding fertilizers, sowing seeds or planting young plants, controling pests, providing sufficient water; harvesting the crop, sorting, storing, and marketing the crop or eating it fresh from the ground.


Sandy soils dry out fast but warm up quickly in the spring and are suitable for early crops.


Heavy clays retain moisture better and are more suitable for late season crops. 


The production of vegetables is constrained by the climate in hot geographical areas,  especially the pattern of rainfall.


The production of vegetables in temperate zones is limited  by the temperature and day length.


The irradiation of vegetables by ionizing radiation can be used to preserve it from both microbial infection and insect damage, as well as from physical deterioration, extending  the storage life of food without noticeably changing its properties.


The main causes of deterioration in vegetables after they are gathered are the actions of naturally-occurring enzymes and the spoilage caused by micro-organisms.


Canning and freezing are the most commonly used techniques, and vegetables preserved by these methods are generally similar in nutritional value to comparable fresh products with regards to carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals. and dietary fiber.


In the canning process, enzymes in vegetables are deactivated and the micro-organisms present killed by heat: then sealed to  exclude air from the foodstuff to prevent subsequent deterioration. 


Freezing vegetables and maintaining their temperature at below −10 °C (14 °F) prevents spoilage for a short period.


With a temperature of −18 °C (0 °F)  longer-term storage can be achieved.


Freezing inhibits enzyme activity.



 Blanching prepared vegetables before freezing mitigates this and prevents off-flavors developing. 



After thawing the vegetables they should be used promptly because many microbes present may proliferate



High levels of sugar and salt can preserve food by preventing micro-organisms from growing. 



Vinegar is widely used in food preservation, as its acetic acid prevents the development of destructive micro-organisms.



Fermentation also preserves vegetables for later use. 



Sauerkraut is made from chopped cabbage and relies on lactic acid bacteria which produce compounds that are inhibitory to the growth of other micro-organisms.






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