Veganism refers to  practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.

A Vegan is an individual who follows the diet or philosophy is known as a vegan. 

Dietary vegans, also known as “strict vegetarians”, refrain from consuming meat, eggs, dairy products, and any other animal-derived substances.

An ethical vegan, or moral vegetarian,is someone who not only follows a vegan diet but extends the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and opposes the use of animals for any purpose.

Environmental veganism, refers to the avoidance of animal products suggesting that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.

Veganism refers to them elmination of the use of animal products, particularly in diet.

In the short term vegan diet can help with weight loss.

Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, and phytochemicals, and lower in dietary energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B12.

A vegan diet may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues.

Many dietary deficiencies can only be prevented with fortified foods or dietary supplements.

Vitamin B12 supplementation is important because its deficiency causes blood disorders and potentially irreversible neurological damage.

Vegans explicitly abstain  from eggs, honey, and animal’s milk, butter and cheese.

There are two kinds of Vegetarians: an extreme form, the members of which eat no animal food products whatso-ever; and a less extreme group, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish. 

6% of US consumers now claim to be vegan.

Black Americans are almost three times more likely to be more vegan and vegetarian than all other Americans: 

Pew Research center claims that 8% of black Americans are strict vegans and vegetarians, compared to 3% of the general public.

Methods of farming are considered highly unethical by most vegans.

Like vegetarians vegans do not eat meat: including beef, pork, poultry, fowl, game, animal seafood.

The main difference between a vegan and vegetarian diet is that vegans exclude dairy products and eggs. 


Those who avoid land animal protein, but consume fish or shellfish have lower risk of all-cause mortality and heart disease than vegans.

Ethical vegans avoid foods  they perceive as  causing  animal suffering and premature death: most male chicks are culled because they do not lay eggs, dairy cows are made pregnant to induce lactation, and female calves can be separated from their mothers within 24 hours of birth, and fed milk substitutes to retain the cow’s milk for human consumption,  most male calves are slaughtered at birth.

Veganism extends not only to food but also to the wearing or use of animal products.


Insect products 

Pet food

Medications tested on animals

Experimentation with laboratory animals.

Avoiding certain vaccines, usually grown in hens’ eggs. 

Fruits and vegetables, even from organic farms, often use animal manure as a fertilizer. 

Vegan vegetables use plant compost only.

Vegan diets are based on grains and other seeds, legumes, particularly beans, fruits, vegetables, edible mushrooms, and nuts.


Vegan diets typically contain no DHA.

Meatless products made from soybeans. known as tofu.or wheat-based seitan are sources of plant protein, commonly in the form of vegetarian sausage, mince, and veggie burgers.

Soy-based dishes are common in vegan diets because soy is a protein source.

Soy-based dishes are consumed most often in the form of soy milk and tofu, bean curd, which is soy milk mixed with a coagulant. 

Tofu varies in textures, depending on water content, from firm, medium firm and extra firm.

Tofu is utilized  in stews and stir-fries, for salad dressings, desserts and shakes. 

Soy is also eaten in the form of tempeh and textured vegetable protein (TVP) often used in pasta sauces.

Plant milks: soy milk, almond milk, cashew milk, grain milks, hemp milk, and coconut milk are used in place of cows’ or goats’ milk.

Soy milk provides around 7 g of protein per cup compared with 8 g of protein per cup of cow’s milk. 

Babies who are not breastfed may be fed commercial infant formula, normally based on soy. 

Butter and margarine can be replaced with alternate vegan products, and vegan cheeses can be made from seeds, such as sesame and sunflower; nuts, such as cashew, pine nut, and almond; and soybeans, coconut oil, nutritional yeast, tapioca, and rice, among other ingredients.

Yeast is a common substitute for the taste of cheese in vegan recipes.

Cheese substitutes can be made from nuts, such as cashews.

Tofu can be used as an egg replacement.

Numerous vegan egg substitutes are available,for eggs, cooking or baking.

Raw veganism is a diet combining veganism and excluding  all animal products and food cooked above 48 C (118 F): vegetables, fruits, nuts, grain and legume sprouts, seeds, and sea vegetables.

Vegans obtain all their protein from plants, omnivores usually a third, and ovo-lacto vegetarians half.

Plant proteins include: legumes such as soy beans, peas, peanuts, black beans, and chickpeas, grains such as quinoa, brown rice, corn, barley, and wheat,and nuts and seeds. 

High amounts of all the essential amino acids are found in combinations of rice and beans, corn and beans, and hummus and whole-wheat pita.

Soy beans and quinoa are complete proteins because they each contain all the essential amino acids in amounts that meet or exceed requirements.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of protein-0.8 g/kg of body weight, in the form of soy will meet the biologic requirement for amino acids.

The American Dietetic Association: a variety of plant foods consumed over the course of a day can provide all the essential amino acids for healthy adults, which means that protein combining in the same meal is generally not necessary.

There is little reason to advise vegans to increase their protein intake; but on the side of caution, 

a 25 percent increase over the RDA for adults, to 1g/kg of body weight is recommended.

Vegans need to consume regularly fortified foods or supplements containing B12.

((Vitamin B12 deficiency)) may cause megaloblastic anaemia and neurological damage, and, if untreated, may lead to death.

The high content of folate  in vegetarian diets may mask the hematological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency: which can lead to irreversible neuropsychiatric abnormalities, neuropathy, dementia and, occasionally, atrophy of optic nerves.

Vegans may fail to obtain enough B12 from their diet because among non-fortified foods, only those of animal origin contain sufficient amount.

Vegetarians are also at risk for B12 deficiency as are older people and those with certain medical conditions.

Vegans should take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of vitamin B12, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12.

B12 is produced in nature only by certain bacteria and archaea.

B12 is not made by any animal, fungus, or plant.

B12 is synthesized by some gut bacteria in humans, but humans cannot absorb the B12 made in their guts, as it is made in the colon which is too far from the small intestine, where absorption of B12 occurs.

Animals store vitamin B12 in liver and muscle and some of it passes into their eggs and milk; meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of B12 for humans.

Vitamin B12 is mostly manufactured by fermentation of various kinds of bacteria, which make forms of cyanocobalamin.

The  cyanocobalamin is further processed to generate B12 supplements.

Calcium is needed to maintain bone health and for several metabolic functions, including muscle function, vascular contraction and vasodilation, nerve transmission, intracellular signalling, and hormonal secretion. 

Ninety-nine percent of the body’s calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.

High-calcium foods may include:  fortified plant milk, kale, collards and raw garlic as common vegetable sources.

Vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over meat eaters and vegetarians, likely because of lower dietary calcium intake. 


Vegans are  94% more likely to experience a hip fracture than those who eat  land animal protein.

If vegans consuming at least 525 mg of calcium daily they have a risk of fractures similar to that of other groups.



Vegetarian/Vegan Diets May Increase Risk of Fracture

A prospective study that suggested vegetarians and vegans were more likely to have a stroke than those who ate land animal protein.

A vegetarian diet does not reduce the risk of heart disease or stroke much more than other healthy dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet.

Those who avoid land animal protein, but consume fish or shellfish have lower risk of all-cause mortality and heart disease than vegans.

EPIC-Oxford on nearly 65,000 adult men and women were recruited and responded to detailed dietary, demographic, and health history ategorized the participants as meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, or vegans.

For those who consume both land animal protein as well as fish/shellfish, compared to those who followed a vegan diet, the latter were 30% more likely to experience a fracture of any kind.

Individuals who avoid  land animal protein but eat fish/shellfish were 6% less likely to experience a fracture. 

Vegans are  94% more likely to experience a hip fracture than those who eat  land animal protein.

Those who were not meat eaters had a lower average intake of both calcium and protein and tended to have a lower BMI than meat eaters. 

It is thought, that a higher BMI places more stress on the bones and helps keep them strong.

The bone mineral density (BMD) of vegans was reported to be 94 percent that of omnivores, but deemed the difference clinically insignificant.

Vitamin D is needed for several functions, including calcium absorption, enabling mineralization of bone, and bone growth. 

Together with calcium Vitamin D offers protection against osteoporosis. 

Most vegan diets contain little or no vitamin D without fortified food. 

Vitamin D is produced in the body when ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the skin, and present in salmon, tuna, mackerel and cod liver oil, with small amounts in cheese, egg yolks, and beef liver, and in some mushrooms.

Sun exposure depends on the season, time of day, cloud and smog cover, skin melanin content, and whether sunscreen is worn. 

Vitamin D has two forms: Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is synthesized in the skin after exposure to the sun or consumed from food, usually from animal sources. 

Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) is suitable for vegans, being derived from ergosterol from UV-exposed mushrooms or yeast.

The differences between vitamins D2 and D3 do not affect metabolism.

Vitamins D2 and D3 both function as prohormones, and exhibit identical responses in the body when activated.

Iron and the zinc levels of vegans may have  limited bioavailability.

The  bioavailability of iron from plant foods, assumed by some researchers to be 5�15 percent compared to 18 percent from a non-vegetarian diet.

While iron stores are lower in vegetarians , the frequency of Iron-deficiency anemia  in non-vegetarians and vegetarians is the same.

The recommended daily allowances (RDA) for for vegetarians and vegans:  14 mg  for vegetarian men and postmenopausal women, and 33 mg for premenopausal women not using oral contraceptives.

High-iron vegan foods include soybeans, blackstrap molasses, black beans, lentils, chickpeas, spinach, tempeh, tofu, and lima beans.

Iron absorption can be enhanced by eating a source of vitamin C at the same time: cauliflower or orange juice. 

Coffee and some herbal teas, spices that contain tannins such as turmeric, coriander, chiles, and tamarind can inhibit iron absorption.

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), is an omega-3 fatty acid, is found in walnuts, seeds, and vegetable oils, such as canola and flaxseed oil.

EPA and DHA, the other primary omega-3 fatty acids, are found only in animal products and algae.

Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized.

Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or regular consumption of seaweeds, such as kelp.

Inconsistent evidence exists for vegan diets providing a protective effect against metabolic syndrome.

Vegan diets appear to help weight loss.

There is evidence of an association between vegan diets and a reduced risk of cancer.

Vegan diet offers no benefit in helping with high blood pressure.

Eliminating all animal products increases the risk of deficiencies of vitamins B12 and D, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids.

If vegans do not receive vitamin B12 supplements, 80% will develop vitamin B12 deficienc.

Vegans are at risk of low bone mineral density without supplements.

Vitamin B12 deficiency inhibits normal function of the nervous system.

The American Academy of Nutrition 

states that properly planned vegan diets are appropriate for all life stages, including pregnancy and lactation.

American Dietetic Association suggests  plant-based eating is  nutritionally sufficient but is also as a way to reduce the risk for many chronic illnesses.

Kaiser Permanente research shows that plant-based diets are cost-effective, that may lower body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C, and cholesterol levels, ischemic heart disease mortality rates, and lower cancer incidence.

The consider well-planned vegetarian and vegan diets appropriate for individuals during all stages of the lifecycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes.

 Vegan-vegetarian diets may be considered safe in pregnancy, provided that attention is paid to vitamin and trace element requirements.

A daily source of vitamin B12 is  

necessary  for pregnant and lactating vegans, as is vitamin D.

Around 26% of the planet’s terrestrial surface is devoted to livestock grazing.

Livestock farming affects the air, land, soil, water, biodiversity and climate change.

The global adoption of plant-based diets would reduce agricultural land use by 76% and cut total global greenhouse gas emissions by 28%.

Vegan diets are associated with lower carbon footprints.

Animal products require more resources and cause higher emissions than plant-based alternatives.

Veganism proposes to move away from animal products to reduce environmental damage.

Vegetarian diets use the least land per capita, but require higher quality land than is needed to feed animals.

The growing demand for meat  is a significant cause of deforestation and habitat destruction, with species-rich habitats being converted to agriculture for livestock production.

About 60% of biodiversity loss can be attributed to feed crop cultivation needed to rear tens of billions of farm animals.

Livestock make up 60% of the biomass of all mammals on earth, followed by humans (36%) and wild mammals (4%). 

As for birds, 70% are domesticated, such as poultry, whereas only 30% are wild.

A shift towards plant-based diets would help to mitigate and adapt to climate change.

A number of religious traditions encourage veganism: sometimes on ethical or environmental grounds.  

Psychologists showed that vegans get rated as negative as other minority groups, rated more negative than vegetarians and men get rated more negative than women, people who eat vegan because of health reasons get rated better than those who eat vegan because of ethical reasons or for animal rights.

Vegans feel discriminated by people who eat meat.

Negative prejudices against vegans are sometimes termed vegaphobia.

Estimates that a vegan, over the course of one year, will save 1.5 million liters of water, 6,607 kg of grain, 1,022 square metres of forest cover, 3,322 kg of CO2, and 365 animal lives compared to the average U.S. diet.

If everyone in the U.S. switched to a vegan diet, the country would save $208.2 billion in direct health-care savings, $40.5 billion in indirect health-care savings, $40.5 billion in environmental savings, and $289.1 billion in total savings by 2050. 


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