Benign monoclonal smooth muscle tumor of the endometrium.
Also known as uterine fibroids.
Uterine leiomyomas, are estrogen- and progesterone-dependent noncancerous tumors of the uterus and are the most common type of benign tumor in women of reproductive age, affecting up to 70% of Caucasian women and up to 80% of African American women by age 50 years.
Presumably derived from a normal myocyte.
Hormone sensitive, smooth muscle tumor.
Suggested that estrogen and progesterone hormones act in concert with growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta to mutate normal myometrium to leiomyoma.
Lesions increase in size during pregnancy.
Symptomatic in up to 50% of affected women.
Cumulative incidence by 50 years of age is approximately 50% among white women and 80% among black women.
They have a major effect on women’s quality-of-life, psychological and social well-being, and overall health, plus they impose a substantial economic burden on women and society.
Hormonal, and familial factors, African ancestry and obesity increase risk.
Growth of lesions cease during menopause.
Approximately 20%-50% of women are estimated to have myomas.
Of 518,828 hysterectomies performed in 2005 54% of patients had leiomyomas (Jacoby JL et al).
Estimated 77% prevalence among women of reproductive age in the US.
The primary symptom is heavy menstrual bleeding, which can lead to anemia.
Patients with uterine fibroids can also have pelvic pain and pressure, urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms, infertility, and complications of pregnancy.
Uterine fibroids estimated to occur in 40% of menstruating women over the age of 50 years.
Fibroids are the most common solid pelvic tumors affecting women in their reproductive years.
Can occur at any time from puberty to menopause.
Histologic evaluation suggests that leiomyomas are present in up to 80% of women.
Estrogen- and progesterone-dependent noncancerous tumors of the uterus and are the most common type of benign tumor in women of reproductive age, affecting up to 70% of Caucasian women and up to 80% of African American women by age 50 years.
Progestogens promote the growth of uterine fibroids.
Risk increases with nulliparity , early menarche, and in African-American women.
Pregnancy reduces the risk.
Obesity increases the risk presumably fro increases estrogen production in adipocytes.
Accounts for 40% of abdominal hysterectomies.
Accounts for approximately 160,000 hysterectomies per year in the U.S.
Are the most common indications for hysterectomy.
Occur 2-3 times as often in in black females compared to white or Asian women.
Most common between ages 35 and 49 years.
Typically resolve after the menopause.
Typically presents with multiple tumors, with an estimated average of 6-7 lesions (Cramer SF, Patel A).
Classified based on their location: submucosal lesions are the least common, intramural fibroids grow within the uterine wall, and subserosal fibroids develop on the outer portion of the uterus.
Submucosal fibroids lie in the submucosal and near the endometrial cavity.
Submucosal fibroids are associated with heavy and prolonged menstrual periods and with an increased miscarriage rate.
Submucosal fibroids may be pedunculated and may prolapse into the cervix.
Growth of intrauterine fibroids can cause symptoms related to a mass affects with abdominal distension and urinary frequency.
Subserosal fibroids may be pedunculated and can grow into the abdomen or into the ligaments of the uterus and cause abdominal distension and bladder compression.
Most patients are asymptomatic and lesions are typically noted during routine clinical examination.
Most common symptom is is abnormal uterine bleeding.
Most common manifestations are menorrhagia and iron deficiency which may lead to chronic fatigue.
30% of women with leiomyomas develop menorrhagia.
Pelvic pain and pelvis pressure present in 30% of women with leiomyomas.
Pain may be cause by the outgrowing of the blood supply, and the development of necrosis.
Large fibroids may increase abdominal girth and may cause pressure on adjacent organs such as the bladder or bowel and cause urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and constipation.
Maybe associated with iron deficiency anemia secondary to menorrhagia..
Leiomyomas may be associated with infertility.
Occasionally associated with dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia or post coital bleeding.
Initial therapy for symptomatic leiomyomata typically is medical management with a variety of hormonal agents including progestins, oral contraceptives, and gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists.
Treatment options for symptomatic leiomyoma include hysterectomy, myomectomy, myolysis hysteroscopic resection, endometrial ablation,uterine fibroid embolization and MRI guided focused ultasound.
Elective uterine artery embolization indicated, provided there is no premalignant or malignant disorder, is symptomatic, postfertility patients with substantial anemia or pelvic pain who have failed to respond to medical therapy and who decline surgery or are poor surgical candidates.
Definitive treatment is often surgical and consists of hysterectomy or myomectomy in patients who wish to preserve the uterus.
Fewer than 0.1% of all leiomyomas undergo malignant transformation.
Intervention is guided by the patient’s age and desire to preserve fertility and avoid hysterectomy.
Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists (GnRH) can be used as bridging for free surgical treatments and create an artificial menopausal state with production in uterus and fibroid volume, but cause hot flashes and may decrease bone mineral density.
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist leuprolide acetate stops bleeding in 85% of patients with anemia before myoma surgery.
Progestin usage is often associated with breakthrough bleeding when used for uterine fibroids, and they also may promote their proliferation.
Levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system can be used for patients with small fibroids, but irregular bleeding and expulsion of the device is common.
Ulipristal acetate randomly assigned to symptomatic women with fibroids with excessive uterine bleeding revealed effective control of bleeding and reduction in the size of fibroids (Donnez J et al).
Injectable depot formulations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists can be prescribed for heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroids, however they induce long lasting gonadal suppression resulting in adverse hypoestrogenic effects.
Elagolix, and oral gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist results in rapid, reversible suppression of gonadotropins and ovarian sex hormones in women.
Elagolix Is effective in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding in women with uterine fibroids.
In a double-blind non-inferiority trial 307 patients with symptomatic bleeding fibroids randomly assigned to receive 3 months of daily therapy with early ulipristal or once monthly intramuscular ejections of leuprolide: both 5mg and 10 mg daily doses of ulipristal were not inferior to once monthly leuprolide in controlling uterine bleeding and were significantly less likely to cause hot flashes (Donnez J et al).
Myomectomy can be performed hysteroscopically, abdominally via laparotomy or by a
minimal invasive surgical approach with laparoscopic robotic assistance.
Large lleiomyoma can be removed by a minilaparotomy, vaginally by colpotomy, or by electric power morcellation to fragment the leiomyoma.
Morcellation has the potential to disseminatie cancer if the leiomyoma is associated with unrecognized cancer.
The overall risk of malignancy associated with electric power morcellation at the time of myomectomy is one in 1073 (Wright JD et al).
Advanced age is the strongest risk factorfor pathological abnormalities associated with the use of electric power morcellation for myomectomy and should be used with caution and older women.