Occurs secondary to inflammation, trauma or ischemia which lead to scarring and contraction reducing the size of the urethral lumen and causing resistance to flow of urine.
Refers mainly to scarring in the spongy erectile tissue of the corpus spongiosum in the anterior urethra.
Posterior urethral fibrotic narrowing can occur with trauma or surgery, such as from radical prostatectomy.
Most common causes are traumatic and iatrogenic and less common problems are inflammatory, infectious, malignant or congenital.
Infectious type usually secondary to gonococcus urethritis.
Presentation includes voiding symptoms, urinary retention, or urinary tract infection.
Associated with decreased urinary stream, incomplete bladder emptying, urinary dribbling, and urinary intermittency.
May occur any site from the bladder to the meatus of the penis.
Iatrogenic causes of urologic instrumentation, placement of indwelling catheters are the most common causes.
Posterior urethral strictures are commonly caused by trauma from pelvic fractures and associated urethral injuries.
Anterior urethral injuries are usually a result from direct and blunt penile or perineal trauma, instrumentation, placement of catheters and infections.