Upper respiratory infections

Related to invasion of the oral and nasal cavities, sinuses, pharynx, and tonsils, while, middle respiratory tract infections involving the larynx, epiglottis and trachea.


Respiratory diseases or one of the most common reasons for physician visits, the most frequent being rhinitis, pharyngitis, and acute bronchitis. 


Most respiratory infections are self-limiting. 

Most commonly caused by viruses.

Estimated 1billion URIs and colds occur annually.

Acute respiratory infections account for 10% of the 1.3 billion annual ambulatory and ED visits in the US.

Bacteria can cause secondary infection of these tissues as a complication of viral infection.

Dental infections are caused by Streptococci mutans.

Periodontal disease associated by anaerobic bacterial agents Bacteroides, Actinomyces and Prevotella.

Antibiotics modify the course of most respiratory infections only slightly, yet about 60% of patients with sore throat and 71% of patients with acute uncomplicated bronchitis receive anabiotics.

When it is not clear that antibiotics will be useful for a respiratory infection a delay strategy is associated with a slightly greater but clinically similar symptoms burden and dirration and substantially reduces antibiotic usage (Delayed Antibiotic Prescription Group).

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *