Typhoid vaccine



Typhoid vaccines prevent typhoid fever.



Several types are widely available: typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), Ty21a (a live vaccine given by mouth) and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (ViPS) (an injectable subunit vaccine).



They are about 30 to 70% effective for the first two years.



The Vi-rEPA vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in children.



Pregnancy category AU: B2



WHO recommends vaccinating all children in areas where the disease is common, recommend vaccinating those at high risk.



Additional doses are recommended every three to seven years.



In the United States the vaccine is only recommended in those at high risk such as travelers to areas of the world where the disease is common.



The vaccines are very safe, although 


minor side effects may occur at the site of injection.



The injectable vaccine is safe  with HIV/AIDS.



The oral Ty21a vaccine prevents around one-half of typhoid cases in the first three years after vaccination. 



The injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine prevents about two-thirds of typhoid cases in the first year and has a cumulative efficacy of 55% by the third year. 



Vi-rEPA vaccine, prevents the disease in many children under the age of five years.



Some vaccines can be given starting at the age of two (ViPS), six (Ty21a), or six months (TCV).



Vaccine types: 



Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine: 



Typhim VI (Sanofi Pasteur); Typherix (GSK)



Ty21a oral vaccine: Vivotif (PaxVax)



Typhoid conjugate vaccine: Typbar-TCV 



Combined hepatitis A and Vi polysaccharide vaccine: ViVaxim and ViATIM (Sanofi Pasteur); Hepatyrix (GSK)




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