TNM staging

Anatomic staging classification that describes the extent of the primary tumor, regional lymph nodes and distant metastases.

Once a cancer is diagnosed needs to be measured in both size and extent of spread.
It is classified through a staging system.
The main factors affecting the stage of cancer are the size of the primary tumor, the involvement of lymph nodes, and the potential spread to other organs in the body.
Cancer stage differently based on the cancerous pattern of advancement, how quickly he attends the spread, and where he travels within the body.
Staging is performed through physical examination, imaging studies, and sometimes biopsies.

Goals of cancer staging are to determine the extent of disease, help implement a treatment plan, and establish the prognosis.

The TNM system is the most common staging system used.

Tumor, lymph node, metastasis classification.

pN0 indicates an absence of malignant cells in extirpated lymph node(s).

M1 indicates the presence of clinical or pathological evidence of metastases.

X indicates that there is no data or uncertainty of clinical or pathological maneuvers to establish a given category for T, N, or M.

Describes extent of cancer and based on premise that choice of treatment and chance of survival related to extent of the primary lesion, the presence or absence of nodal disease and presence or absence of disease beyond the regional nodes.

Classification occurs prior to treatment and after surgical intervention ref2242ed to a clinical and pathological staging, respectively.

T1-4 expresses increasing size or spread of the primary tumor.

TNM staging-N and M comprise 0 and 1 indicating the absence or presence of tumor.

There are up to four divisions of T1-T4 and six subdivisions of N1 in breast cancer and three subdivisions of M in prostate cancer.

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