Tetanus vaccine

Tetanus vaccine, also known as tetanus toxoid.


It is a toxoid vaccine used to prevent tetanus.



The type of vaccination is called artificial active immunity, and is generated when a dead or weakened version of the disease enters the body, causing an immune response which includes the production of antibodies. 



During childhood, five doses are recommended, with a sixth given during adolescence.



After three doses, almost everyone is initially immune, but additional doses every ten years are recommended to maintain immunity.



Tetanus vaccination is often administered via combination DPT vaccines.



Additional doses every ten years are recommended to maintain immunity.



A booster shot should be given within 48 hours of an injury to people whose immunization is out of date.



For people with high-risk injuries who are not fully immunized, tetanus antitoxin may also be recommended.



Pregnant women should be up to date on tetanus immunization during each pregnancy to prevent both maternal and neonatal tetanus.



The vaccine is very safe, including during pregnancy and in those with HIV/AIDS.



The site of injection redness and swelling occur in between 25% and 85% of people.



Fever, feeling tired, and minor muscle pain occurs in less than 10% of people



Severe allergic reactions occur in less than one in 100,000 people.



Vaccine combinations that include the tetanus vaccine: DTaP and Tdap, which contain diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines, and DT and Td, which contain diphtheria and tetanus vaccines.



DTaP and DT are given to children less than seven years old.



Tdap and Td are given to those seven years old and older.



The lowercase d and p reflect 


 lower strengths of diphtheria and pertussis vaccines.



Tetanus toxoid vaccine use resulted in a 95% decrease in the rate of tetanus.



Following vaccination, 95% of people are protected from diphtheria, 80% to 85% from pertussis, and 100% from tetanus.



Globally deaths from tetanus in newborns decreased 96% from 1988.



In the United States 30 cases per year occur: Nearly all cases are among those who have never received a vaccine, or adults who have not stayed up to date on their 10-year booster shots.



Women should receive a Tdap vaccine during each pregnancy, preferably between weeks 27 and 36, to allow antibody transfer to the fetus.



All postpartum women who have not previously received the Tdap vaccine are recommended to receive the vaccination discharge after delivery.



For pregnant women who have never received the tetanus vaccine,  should receive a series of three Td vaccinations starting during pregnancy to ensure protection against maternal and neonatal tetanus. 



On infancy a baby is injected with the DTaP vaccine, which is three inactive toxins in one injection. 



DTaP protects against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. 



This vaccine is safer than the previously used DTP.



DT, a combination of diphtheria and tetanus vaccines is given as an alternative to infants who have conflicts with the DTaP vaccine.



Quadrivalent, pentavalent, and hexavalent formulations contain DTaP with one or more of the additional vaccines: inactivated polio virus vaccine (IPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, Hepatitis B are available.



For the every ten-year booster Td or Tdap may be used.



Recommended  six doses in childhood starting at six weeks of age.



Four doses of DTaP are to be given in early childhood.



The first DYaP dose is given about two months of age, the second at four months, the third at six, and the fourth from fifteen to eighteen months of age. 



There is a recommended fifth dose to be administered to four- to six-year-olds.   



Td and Tdap are for older children, adolescents, and adults and can be injected into the deltoid muscle.



These boosters and are recommended every ten years,  because lymphocyte production of antibodies is  not at a constant high rate of activity. 



With the production activity of white blood cells will start to decline, and activity of the T-helper cells must be a boosted  to help keep the white blood cells active.



Td and Tdap are the booster shots given every ten years to maintain immunity for adults nineteen years of age to sixty-five years of age.



Booster shots should be administered before the age of sixty-five and that one of these booster shots should be Tdap while the rest are Td.



Side effects of the tetanus vaccine include: fever, redness, and swelling with soreness or tenderness around the injection site, body aches and tiredness have been reported following Tdap. 



Td / Tdap can cause a painful swollen  of entire arm in one of 500 people.



Tetanus toxoid containing vaccines cause brachial neuritis at a rate of one out of every 100,000 to 200,000 doses.



The combined tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis (TDaP or DTaP), could be given to adolescents and adults as opposed to previously when the vaccine was only given to children).




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