Contribute to mastication and proper speech.

Implanted in the jaw and surrounded by gingival mucosa.

A key feature of facial aesthetics.

Crown of the tooth projects into the mouth.

Covered by enamel which is a hard acellular, inert tissue.

Tooth functioning relies on a combination of hard and soft tissues.

Enamel is the most mineralized tissue in the body.

Enable is the hardest tissue of the human body with characteristics to withstand mastic tear masticatory forces to protect dental tissues from chemical and bacterial assaults.

Enamel overlies dentin, the connective tissue that makes up the remainder of the hard tissue of teeth.

Ameloblasts synthesize the organic components of enamel, where hydroxyapatite prisms form.

Ameloblasts cells are lost upon toothberuption, making teeth or teeth incapable of regenerating enamel.

Dentin forms a less mineralized matrix tightly interconnected with the enamel and dental pulp, richly vascularized and innervated soft connective tissue that occupies the central portion of teeth.

Denton is synthesized by pulp-derived odontoblasts.

Dentin contains dentinal tubules, containing the cytoplasmic extensions of odontoblasts, and sensory nerve endings, making it highly sensitive to external stimuli and permeable to bacteria upon enamel destruction.

Odontoblasts are present within the pulp and produce new dentin within the interior of the tooth.

Pulp chamber surrounded by the dentin and contains connective tissue, nerves, lymph vessels and capillaries.

With tooth injury newly formed dentin or bone like matrix protect vitality, but more significant damage can lead to pulp necrosis.

Mastication requires firm attachment of teeth to the jaw.

Teeth are attached to the alveolar ridge of the jaw by the periodontal ligament which allows strong but flexible attachment so that teeth are not lost or fractured by chewing.

Teeth are anchored to the alveolar bone by their roots that consist of dentin and cementum.

The periodontal ligament attaches to the alveolar bone on one side and to the cementum which is present on the roots of the teeth.

The periodontal ligament is the connective tissue that provides stability the teeth and observed mechanical stresses during chewing.

Age, trauma, infections, and genetic diseases combine to result in tooth loss.

Enamel and dentin of the tooth crown are often the first tissues to be affected following traumatic injuries or carrious decay.

Rapid repair of enamel and dentin is fundamental to prevent bacterial propagation towards the vital dental soft tissues of the pulp and periodontium as well as the alveolar bone.

For treating injured enamel and dentin advanced composite materials are substituted for tooth restoration.

New materials incorporate nanostructures in dental composites enhancing the stability and aesthetic properties and reducing the degradation of the resin-tooth bonded interface.

Hydroxyapatite particles are used in dentifrices to stimulate the re-mineralization process of hyper sensitive teeth with deteriorated enamel.

Crowns using ceramic base materials have superior aesthetic appearance and bio compatibility and are pref2242ed for the restoration of damaged teeth.

Ceramic crowns are brittle and prone to cracking and new developments of more aging resistance ceramics such as zirconia exhibit toughness and flexibility.

Dental Pulp vitality is of major importance during the treatment of damaged teeth.

With severe tooth injury pulp inflammation occurs along with necrosis, and endodontic therapy consisting of pulp tissue removal is employed to prevent further bacterial progression and tissue damage.

Following removal of pulp tissue disinfection of the dental root canal and replacement of the pulp tissue with a new inorganic materials is performed.

Devitalized teeth are fragile and predisposed to post operative fractures.

New endodontic treatment is intended to regenerate pulp tissues using biomaterials, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory molecules, growth factors, and stem cells are utilized.

Scaffolding containing dental mesenchymal stem cells are being used to achieve regeneration of pulp tissue.

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