Subcutaneous tissue


The subcutaneous tissue also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system

Cells found in the hypodermis are: fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages.

Derived from the mesoderm.

Lies beneath the dermis, which is beneath epidermis.

It is mainly used for fat storage.

Consists primarily of loose connective tissue and lobules of fat.

It contains larger blood vessels and nerves than those found in the dermis.

It contains fibrous bands that anchor the skin to the deep fascia, and collagen and elastin fibers that attach it to the dermis.

Fat is present except in the eyelids, clitoris, penis, much of pinna, and scrotum.

It contains blood vessels on route to the dermis, and lymphatic vessels from the dermis.

The glandular part of some sweat glands; mammary gland lie entirely within the subcutaneous tissue.

Cutaneous nerves, hair follicle roots, Ruffini and Pacinian corpuscles, mast cells, bursae, in the space overlying joints in order to facilitate smooth passage of overlying skin, sheets of muscle, in the scalp, face, hand, nipple, and scrotum, called the panniculus carnosus are all part of subcutaneously tissue.

Subcutaneous fat is widely distributed.

Subcutaneous fat is composed of adipocytes, which are grouped together in lobules separated by connective tissue.

The number of adipocytes varies among different areas of the body.

Adipocytes size varies according to the body’s nutritional state.

Subcutaneous fat acts as padding and as an energy reserve, and provides minor thermoregulation via insulation.

Subcutaneous fat is found just beneath the skin.

Visceral fat, which is found in the peritoneal cavity,

Subcutaneous fat can be measured using body fat calipers providing an estimate of total body adiposity.

Subcutaneous tissue is thickest in the buttocks, palms, and soles.

Compared to skin thickness, which is relatively constant, subcutaneous tissue thickness varies widely.

Subcutaneous fat thickness increases in direct proportion to BMI, and women on average have appproximally 5 mm greater subcutaneous fat thickness than men at the same BMI.

Truncal sites (abdomen and buttocks) have thicker subcutaneous fat than limbs (thighs and arms) in the same individual.

Children ages 0 to 2 years have higher BMIs and more SC tissue than preschool,children.

Preschool children 2-6 years are at the thinnest point in their lives and both sexes usually have very little subcutaneous tissue.

School age children 7 to 13 years slowly gain subcutaneous tissue with few sex differences until puberty.

With puberty young women gain considerably more SC tissue that young men due to hormonal changes.

The subcutaneous tissue is a route of administration used for drugs because it is highly vascular, and it’s tissue absorbs drugs quickly.

Subcutaneous injection is the most effective manner to administer some drugs.

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