Soft drinks

Consumption in the U.S. increased greatly over the past few decades.

Consumption of sweetened soft drinks related to risk of obesity in children.

Contain large amounts of fructose corn syrup which increases blood glucose.

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages are the leading source of sugar in diet for various racial and ethnic groups.

Sugar-sweetened beverages represent the single largest source of added dietary sugars US and are associated with diabetes and other chronic health conditions.

Leading source of added sugar in American diet.

Overweight and obese adolescents get more than 300 kcal per day from these products, which is an average of 15% of their total daily intake (Yang WC et al).

Increased consumption of sweetened beverages with sugar associated with weight gain and increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women.

Sweetened drinks may contribute the weight gain because liquids provide low satiety.

Sugar-sweetened beverages are more fattening than solid foods because they do not lead to a sense of satiety.

Children who increase consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may not reduce their intake of calories from other sources such as food and other beverages, with the resulting increase in total energy intake and, therefore, weight gain.

Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages is associated with weight gain in most observational studies, but not all.

Children who drink more sugar-sweetened beverages tend to eat more fast food and watch more television.

Cnsumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks associated with a higher risk of weight gain compared to artificially sweetened supplements.

High consumption of artificially and sweetened  types of beverages associated with higher risk of heart disease.

Disproportionate consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in low income communities and people of color contribute to poorer health outcomes in these groups.

Consumption of sugar sweetened drinks contains large amounts of high-fructose corn syrup, which as fructose, increases blood glucose and insulin concentrations.

Cola-type soft drinks contain caramel coloring which may increase inflammation and insulin resistance associated a result of glycation end products.

Diet colas not associated with diabetes risk.

Caffeinated types contain 10-16 mg of caffeine per 100 gm, considerable less than coffee or tea.

Higher consumption associated with greater energy intake, greater body weight, and lower intake of essential nutrients.

From 1970 to 2000 soft drink consumption increased 70% from 7.8 oz to 13.2 oz.

Over the past 30 years the total calorie intake has averaged an increase 150-300 calories per day, with about half of that related to soft drinks.

In an analysis of genetic predisposition and intake of sugar sweetened beverages in relation to BMI and obesity risk in 6930 for women from the Nurses” Health Study, and 4423 men from the Health Professionals Followup Study and a cohort of 21,740 women from the Women’s Genome Health Study: Blood genetic association with obesity is more pronounced with grade intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (Qibin Qi et al).

In an 18 month trial involving 641 mostly normal weight children randomly assigned to receive 8 ounces per day of sugar-free, artificially sweetened beverages or a similar sugar containing beverage that provided 140 kcal: replacement of sugar containing beverages with noncaloric beverages reduced weight gain and fat accumulation in normal weight children( de Ruyter JC et al).


Both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages have associated health risks.



Sugar-sweetened soft drinks contribute to weight gain and non-caloric soft drinks are implicated in weight gain, as well.



A multi-national, long-term observational study known as EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition): analysis focused on soft drink consumption overall as well as differentiating between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks.



The EPIC study recruited over 500,000 participants in 10 European countries between 1992 and 2000 and follow-up is ongoing. 



Over 450,000 participants were involved in analysis 2018.



How much people drank was measured in glasses per day.



One glass being about 250ml (about 8.5 ounces), then grouped into increasing amounts: less than 1 glass per month, 1-4 glasses per month, 1-6 glasses per week, 1-2 glasses per day, and 2 or more glasses per day.



After an average of just over 16 years of follow-up results:



Those who consumed at least 2 glasses of artificially sweetened soft drinks every day were 26% more likely to die of any cause compared to those who drank less than 1 glass per month of a soft drink of any kind.



Those who drank the same amount of sugar-sweetened soft drinks were only 17% more likely to die of any cause, but the results were worse for those clinically classified as obese than those clinically classified as overweight.



Those with a BMI over 30 who drank 2 or more glasses of sugar-sweetened soft drinks per day were at a 23% greater risk of death from all causes as compared to those who drank less than 1 glass of sugar-sweetened soft drinks per day, while the risk for those with a BMI between 25 and 30 was the same as those who were of clinically normal weight.



Drinking any soft drinks was associated with the participants’ risk of death from circulatory diseases like heart disease or cerebrovascular diseases, while drinking sugar-sweetened soft drinks alone did not appear to affect that risk. 



On the other hand, drinking at least 1 sugar-sweetened soft drink every day meant a 59% greater risk of dying from a digestive disorder that includes liver, esophageal, and gall bladder disorders.



Consuming more soft drinks, whether sugar-sweetened or not, also appeared to contribute to a participants’ risk of death from colon cancer, but not breast cancer or prostate cancer.



Authors found that drinking at least one glass per day of any type of soft drink was linked to a 59% greater risk of death from Parkinson disease, with similar associations for both sugar-sweetened and artificially-sweetened soft drinks.


High consumption of artificially and sweetened  types of beverages associated with higher risk of heart disease.



Sugary drinks and artificially sweetened beverages are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, which suggests artificially sweetened beverages may not be the healthy alternative they are often claimed to be.



Researchers looked at data from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort to investigate the relationship between the risk of cardiovascular disease and consuming sugary drinks and artificially sweetened drinks.



Records for 104,760 participants were included. 



Artificially sweetened beverages were defined as those containing non-nutritive sweeteners. 



Sugary drinks consisted of all beverages containing 5% or more sugar. 



First incident cases of cardiovascular disease during follow-up from 2009-2019, which were defined as stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome and angioplasty. 



Compared to non-consumers, both higher consumers of sugary drinks and of artificially sweetened beverages had higher risks of first incident cardiovascular disease.



Studies  suggests artificially sweetened beverages may not be a healthy substitute for sugar drinks.



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