Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate commonly known as baking soda.

Chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.

It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3−).

It is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder.

Routes of administration Intravenous, and oral.

The term baking soda is more common in the United States.

In cooking, baking soda is primarily used in baking as a leavening agent.

When sodium bicarbonate reacts with acid, carbon dioxide is released, causing expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in pancakes, cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods.

Acidic compounds that induce this reaction include: phosphates, cream of tartar, lemon juice, yogurt, buttermilk, cocoa, and vinegar.

Heat causes sodium bicarbonate to act as a raising agent in baking, releasing carbon dioxide.

Carbon dioxide production from exposure to heat starts at temperatures above 80 °C (180 °F).

Baking powder, contains around 30% of bicarbonate, and various acidic ingredients.

Sodium bicarbonate can be an effective way of controlling fungal growth.

Sodium bicarbonate can be administered to pools, spas, and garden ponds to raise the total alkalinity.

It has weak disinfectant properties, and it may be an effective fungicide against some organisms.

It will absorb musty smells.

It can be used to extinguish grease or electrical fires.

It is used in BC dry chemical fire extinguishers.

Sodium bicarbonate reacts spontaneously with acids, releasing CO2 gas, and is commonly used to neutralize unwanted acid solutions or acid spills in chemical laboratories.

When mixed with water can be used as an antacid to treat acid indigestion and heartburn.

Its reaction with stomach acid produces salt, water, and carbon dioxide: NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2

A mixture of sodium bicarbonate and polyethylene glycol taken orally, is an effective gastrointestinal lavage preparation and laxative.

Intravenous sodium bicarbonate can be used used to correct acidosis, or when insufficient sodium or bicarbonate ions are in the blood.

With respiratory acidosis, the infused bicarbonate ion drives the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer of plasma to the left, and thus raises the pH.

It is used in cardiopulmonary resuscitation as an Infusion only when the blood pH is markedly low (< 7.1–7.0).

HCO3− is used for treatment of hyperkalemia, as it will drive K+ back into cells during periods of acidosis.

Sodium bicarbonate can cause alkalosis.

It can be used to treat aspirin overdoses. as the basic environment diminishes aspirin absorption in the case of an overdose.

Sodium bicarbonate added to local anesthetics speeds up the onset of their effects and make their injection less painful.

Serum bicarbonate concentration level below 22 mEq per liter is associated with malignancy-related mortality, whereas concentration above 26 mEq per liter is associated with cardiovascular mortality.

Toothpaste containing sodium bicarbonate has in several studies been shown to have a better whitening and plaque removal effect than toothpastes without it.

Sodium bicarbonate in some mouthwashes has anti-caries and abrasive properties, and works as a mechanical cleanser on the teeth and gums, neutralizes the production of acid in the mouth, and also acts as an antiseptic to help prevent infections.

Sodium bicarbonate in combination with other ingredients can be used to make deodorants.

Sodium bicarbonate may be used as a combined with table salt, when creating a solution for nasal irrigation.

It has been used in eye hygiene to treat blepharitis.

It is used in a process for removing paint and corrosion called sodablasting, in removing surface rust, in cleaning aluminum, as a replacement for water softener, to remove odors from clothes, to remove odors from clothes, to remove heavy tea and coffee stains from cups and can be used as a multipurpose odor remover.

Sodium bicarbonate is an amphoteric compound.

Aqueous solutions are very mildly alkaline due to the formation of carbonic acid and hydroxide ion.

It reacts with acetic acid producing sodium acetate, water, and carbon dioxide.

Sodium bicarbonate reacts with bases such as sodium hydroxide to form carbonates.

Sodium bicarbonate reacts with carboxyl groups in proteins to give a effervescence from the formation of CO2.

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