Self expandable metallic stent


Refers to a metallic tube, or stent, used in order to hold open a structure in the gastrointestinal tract in order to allow the passage of food, stool, or other secretions required for digestion.

Inserted by endoscopy or with the use of fluoroscopy assistance.

Primarily used to alleviate symptoms caused by cancers of the gastrointestinal tract that obstruct the esophagus, duodenum, common bile duct and colon.

Designed to be permanent and cannot be removed by surgery.

Cylindrically tubed shaped, with a number of diameters and lengths depending on the application site, with cross-hatched, braided or interconnecting rows of metal.

The SEMS is initially unexpanded and small enough to fit through the endoscope.

The device is expanded by a device which is at the end of the SEMS.

Friction holds the stent at the luminal site.

SEMS may be coated with chemicals to prevent tumors growing into the stent.

Covered stents may increase risk of stent migration.

Plastic self-expanding stents have been developed for similar applications.

May be used to treat tracheoesophageal fistulas and gastric outlet obstruction which may result from stomach, duodenal or pancreatic cancer.

Biliary SEMS are used to treat tumours of the pancreas or bile duct that obstruct the common bile duct.

Can be used for non-malignant conditions that cause strictures or leaks of the gastrointestinal tract.

Sometimes used in the vascular system such as the aorta and peripheral vascular system, saphenous vein graft and native coronary artery percutaneous coronary interventions.

Tumors may obstruct the stent by growing into the wall or over its end.

SEMS may migrate out of the obstructed area.

Rarely, may fracture or intussescept.

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