A complex molecular structure , found within all living cells, that is the site of biological protein synthesis.

Ribosomes link amino acids together as specified by messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules.

Minute particles consisting of RNA and associated proteins that function to synthesize proteins.

Proteins are needed for many cellular functions such as repairing damage or directing chemical processes.

Ribosomes can be found floating within the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.

Ribosomes consist of two major components: the small ribosomal subunits, and the large subunits.which join amino acids to form a polypeptide chain.

The small ribosomal units read the RNA.

The large subunits join amino acids to form a polypeptide chain.

Each subunit comprises one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and a variety of ribosomal proteins.

The translational apparatus refers to the ribosomes and associated molecules.

DNA encodes the sequence of the amino acids in a protein.

DNA is copied into a messenger RNA chain, and may be copied many times.

Ribosomes can bind to a messenger RNA chain, and determine the correct sequence of amino acids for generating a given protein.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules select and carry amino acids to the ribosome.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) enters one part of the ribosome and binds to the messenger RNA chain.

Messenger binding translates nucleic acid sequence to appropriate amino acid sequence.

For each coding triplet in the messenger RNA there is a distinct transfer RNA.

Transfer RNA carries the correct amino acid for that coding triplet, and the attached amino acids are then linked together by another part of the ribosome.

When protein is produced, it can be folded to produce a specific functional three-dimensional structure.

A ribosome is made from complexes of RNAs and proteins and is therefore a ribonucleoprotein.

Ribosomes are divided into two subunits:

a smaller subunit which binds to a larger subunit and the mRNA pattern,

and a larger subunit which binds to the tRNA, the amino acids, and the smaller subunit.

Ribosomes are ribozymes, because the catalytic peptidyl transferase activity that links amino acids together is performed by the ribosomal RNA.

Ribosomes are often associated with intracellular membranes that make up the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Eukaryotic ribosomes are between 25 and 30 nm (250–300 Å) in diameter.

The unit of measurement for ribosomal subunits and the rRNA fragments is the Svedberg unit, a measure of the rate of sedimentation in centrifugation rather than size.

The mRNA comprises a series of codons that dictate to the ribosome the sequence of the amino acids needed to make the protein.

Free ribosomes are excluded from the cell nucleus and other organelles, but can move about anywhere in the cytosol

When a ribosome begins to synthesize proteins they can become membrane-bound in a region of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) called the “rough ER”.

Bound ribosomes usually produce proteins that are used within the plasma membrane or are expelled from the cell can move about anywhere in the cytosol.

In eukaryotes, protein production takes place both in the cell cytoplasm and in the nucleolus.

Protein assembly process involves the coordinated function of over 200 proteins in the synthesis and processing of the four rRNAs, as well as assembly of those rRNAs with the ribosomal proteins.

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