Pulmonary hypoplasia

A congenital anomaly with impaired development of both lungs, but one may be more affected than the other.

The lung has decreased weight, volume and fewer acini compared to the body weight and gestational age.

Seen in 10% of neonatal autopsies with association of space occupying lesions in the uterus, oligohydramnios, impaired fetal respiratory movements, diaphragmatic hernia, renal cysts, renal agenesis, anencephaly and premature rupture of the membranes.

Decreased number or alveoli, cells and airway with decreased size and weight of the lungs.

May be a primary process but is generally secondary to other processes preventing pulmonary development.

Frequently associated with cardiac, genitourinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal, and bronchopulmonary malformations.

Decreased number of acini due to decreased number of branching generations and decreased size of the alveoli, wile the structures are intact.

Pulmonary artery may be small or occasionally absent.

Surfactant deficiency may be seen.

Delayed or absent epithelial differentiation may be seen.

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